Plants, Fine Art Prints

- Art Gallery -

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Malvales

Familia: Dipterocarpaceae
Subfamilia: Dipterocarpoideae
Genus: Shorea
Sectiones: S. sect. Anthoshorea – S. sect. Brachypterae – S. sect. Doona – S. sect. Mutica – S. sect. Neohopea – S. sect. Ovalis – S. sect. Pachycarpae – S. sect. Pentacme – S. sect. Richetioides – S. sect. Rubella – S. sect. Shorea
Species (185)
a

S. acuminata – S. acuminatissima – S. acuta – S. affinis – S. agami – S. albida – S. almon – S. altopoensis – S. alutacea – S. amplexicaulis – S. andulensis – S. angustifolia – S. argentifolia – S. arsorianoi – S. asahii – S. assamica – S. astylosa – S. atrinervosa
b

S. bakoensis – S. balanocarpoides – S. beccariana – S. bentongensis – S. biawak – S. blumutensis – S. bracteolata – S. brunnescens – S. bullata
c

S. calcicola – S. carapae – S. chaiana – S. ciliata – S. collaris – S. collina – S. confusa – S. congestiflora – S. conica – S. contorta – S. cordata – S. cordifolia – S. coriacea – S. crassa – S. curtisii – S. cuspidata
d

S. dasyphylla – S. dealbata – S. dispar – S. disticha – S. domatiosa – S. dyeri
e

S. elliptica – S. exelliptica
f

S. faguetiana – S. faguetioides – S. falcata – S. falcifera – S. falciferoides – S. fallax – S. farinosa – S. ferruginea – S. flaviflora – S. flemmichii – S. foraminifera – S. foxworthyi – S. furfuracea
g

S. gardneri – S. geniculata – S. gibbosa – S. glauca – S. gratissima – S. guiso
h

S. havilandii – S. hemsleyana – S. henryana – S. hopeifolia – S. hulanidda – S. hypochra – S. hypoleuca –
i

S. iliasii – S. inaequilateralis – S. inappendiculata – S. induplicata – S. isoptera
J

S. javanica – S. johorensis
k

S. kuantanensis – S. kudatensis – S. kunstleri
l

S. ladiana – S. laevis – S. lamellata – S. laxa – S. lepidota – S. leprosula – S. leptoderma – S. lissophylla – S. longiflora – S. longisperma – S. lumutensis – S. lunduensis
m

S. macrantha – S. macrobalanos – S. macrophylla – S. macroptera – S. malibato – S. materialis – S. maxima – S. maxwelliana – S. mecistopteryx – S. megistophylla – S. micans – S. monticola – S. montigena – S. mujongensis – S. multiflora – S. myrionerva
n

S. negrosensis
o

S. oblongifolia – S. obovoidea – S. obscura – S. obtusa – S. ochracea – S. ochrophloia – S. ovalifolia – S. ovalis – S. ovata
p

S. pachyphylla – S. palembanica – S. pallescens – S. pallidifolia – S. palosapis – S. parvifolia – S. parvistipulata – S. patoiensis – S. pauciflora – S. peltata – S. pilosa – S. pinanga – S. platycarpa – S. platyclados – S. polita – S. polyandra – S. polysperma – S. praestans – S. pubistyla
q

S. quadrinervis
r

S. resinosa – S. retinodes – S. retusa – S. revoluta – S. richetia – S. robusta – S. rotundifolia – S. roxburghii – S. rubella – S. rubra – S. rugosa
s

S. sagittata – S. scaberrima – S. scabrida – S. scrobiculata – S. selanica – S. seminis – S. siamensis – S. singkawang – S. slootenii – S. smithiana – S. splendida – S. squamata – S. stenoptera – S. stipularis – S. subcylindrica – S. submontana – S. sumatrana – S. superba – S. symingtonii
t

S. tenuiramulosa – S. teysmanniana – S. thorelii – S. trapezifolia – S. tumbuggaia
u

S. uliginosa
v

S. venulosa – S. virescens
w

S. waltoni – S. wangtianshuea – S. woodii – S. worthingtonii
x

S. xanthophylla
z

S. zeylanica
Incertae sedis

S. cara
Name

Shorea Roxb. ex C.F.Gaertn., Suppl. Carp.: 47 (1805).

Type species: Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Anthoshorea Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch.: t. 250 (1891).
Caryolobis Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 215 (1788).
Doona Thwaites, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: t. 12 (1851).
Isoptera Scheff. ex Burck, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 6: 222 (1887).
Parahopea F.Heim, Rech. Dipterocarp.: 66 (1892).
Pentacme A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 626 (1868).
Richetia F.Heim, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 975 (1892).
Saul Roxb. ex Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 84 (1834).

References
Primary references

Gaertner, C.F. 1805. Supplementum Carpologicae seu continuati operis Josephi Gaertner de fructibus et seminibus plantarum. Centuria prima. 128 pp.. C.F.E. Richter, Lipsiae [Leipzig]. BHL Reference page. : 47.

Additional references

Kamiya, K., Harada, K., Tachida, H. & Ashton, P.S. 2005. Phylogeny of PgiC gene in Shorea and its closely related genera (Dipterocarpaceae), the dominant trees in Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. American Journal of Botany 92(5): 775–788. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.92.5.775 Reference page.
Kamiya, K., Gan, Y.Y., Lum, S.K.Y., Khoo, M.S., Chua, S.C., & Faizu, N.N.H. 2011. Morphological and molecular evidence of natural hybridization in Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). Tree Genetics & Genomes 7(2): 297–306. DOI: 10.1007/s11295-010-0332-8 Reference page.
LaFrankie, J. V. jr. & Chan, H. T. 1991. Confirmation of sequential flowering in Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). Biotropica 23(2): 200–203. JSTORHybrid open access journal Reference page.
Shi, G., Jacques, F. M. B. & Li, H. 2014. Winged fruits of Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae) from the Miocene of Southeast China: Evidence for the northward extension of dipterocarps during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 200: 97–107. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2013.09.003 Reference page.
Tsumura, Y., Kado, T., Yoshida, K., et al. 2011. Molecular database for classifying Shorea species (Dipterocarpaceae) and techniques for checking the legitimacy of timber and wood products. Journal of Plant Research 124(1): 35–48. DOI: 10.1007/s10265-010-0348-z Reference page.
Yulita, K.S., Bayer, R.J., & West, J.G. 2005. Molecular phylogenetic study of Hopea and Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae): Evidence from the trnL–trnF and internal transcribed spacer regions. Plant Species Biology 20(3): 167–182. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2005.00136.x ResearchGate Reference page.
Ashton, P.S. 2004. Dipterocarpaceae. In: Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G. & Chung, R.C.K., eds. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Volume 5, Government of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ISBN 983-2181-59-3

Links

Hassler, M. 2020. Shorea. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 17. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Shorea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Shorea. Published online. Accessed: Mar 17 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Shorea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar 17.
Sorting Shorea names

Vernacular names
English: Shorean
Esperanto: Ŝoreo
Bahasa, Indonesia: Bangkirai,Balau
中文: 娑罗双属

Shorea is a genus of about 196 species of mainly rainforest trees in the family Dipterocarpaceae. The genus is named after Sir John Shore, the governor-general of the British East India Company, 1793–1798. The timber of trees of the genus is sold under the common names lauan, luan, lawaan, meranti, seraya, balau, bangkirai, and Philippine mahogany.[1]

Description

Shorea spp. are native to Southeast Asia, from northern India to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In west Malesia and the Philippines, this genus dominates the skyline of the tropical forests. The tallest documented tropical angiosperm is an 88.3-m-tall Shorea faguetiana in the Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo, and in that park at least five other species of the genus have been measured to be over 80 m tall: S. argentifolia, S. gibbosa, S. johorensis, S. smithiana, and S. superba.[2] Borneo is also the hotspot of Shorea diversity with 138 species, of which 91 are endemic to the island.[3]

Species
Main article: List of Shorea species
Reproductive biology

The majority of Shorea spp. are general flowering species, which is an event that occurs at irregular intervals of 3–10 yr, in which nearly all dipterocarp species together with species of other families bloom heavily.[4] General flowering is thought to have evolved to satiate seed predators[5] and/or to facilitate pollination.[4] Both explanations apparently hold merit.[6] Flowering is thought to be triggered by droughts that occur during transition periods from La Niña to El Niño.[7] The magnitude of a flowering event is suggested to be dependent on the timing of the droughts associated with the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) cycle, with the largest events occurring after an interval of several years with no flowering.[7]

Shorea spp. are insect pollinated and a variety of insects have been implicated, with species within the sections of Shorea sharing the same insect pollinators. Flowering within a section is sequential within one habitat and species association to prevent competition for pollinators.[8]

Seed predation and mortality have an impact on the reproduction process of dipterocarps such as Shorea. In Singapore, crab-eating macaque and moth larvae are known seed predators.[9]
Uses

Many economically important timber trees belong to Shorea. They are sold under various trade names including "lauan", "lawaan", "meranti", "seraya", "balau", "bangkirai", and "Philippine mahogany". (For a list of species associated with each name, see the article on Dipterocarp timber classification.) The "Philippine mahogany" sold in North America is not a true mahogany at all, but a mixture of woods from the genus Shorea.

Other products from Shorea spp. include dammar and illepe. Dammar is a resin collected from a variety of species. It varies in colour among the different taxonomic groups. Shorea wiesneri is listed in many websites as an important source of dammar;[10] however, this appears to be either a trade name or a synonym.[11][12]

Borneo tallow nut oil is extracted from the egg-shaped, winged fruit of Shorea species.[13]
Conservation status

Of the 148 species of Shorea currently listed on the IUCN Redlist, most are listed as being critically endangered.[14] Some concerns exist regarding the IUCN's listing of dipterocarps, as the criteria used to assess the level of threat are based mainly on animal population characteristics. This is thought to overstate the threat assessment, when applied to long-lived, habitat-specific organisms such as trees.[3] Furthermore, one species reportedly extinct on the IUCN Red list, Shorea cuspidata, is reported to be common in the Bako National Park and also present in the Lambir National Park.[3] The Shorea species page gives threat classifications.
Conservation status of Shorea spp.

IUCN red list category Number of species
Extinct 1
Critically endangered 102
Endangered 34
Vulnerable 3
Least concern 6
Data deficient 2
Not evaluated ~48

See also

Dipterocarp timber classification

References

Lauan - The Wood Database
"Borneo". Eastern Native Tree Society. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
Ashton, P. S. "Dipterocarpaceae". In Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 5, 2004. Soepadmo, E.; Saw, L. G. and Chung, R. C. K. eds. Government of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ISBN 983-2181-59-3
Sakai, Shoko; K Momose; T Yumoto; T Nagamitsu; H Nagamasu; A A Hamid; T Nakashizuka (1999). "Plant reproductive phenology over four years including an episode of general flowering in a lowland dipterocarp forest, Sarawak, Malaysia". American Journal of Botany. 86 (10): 1414–36. doi:10.2307/2656924. JSTOR 2656924. PMID 10523283. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
Curran, Lisa M.; M. Leighton (2000). "Vertebrate responses to spatiotemporal variation in seed production of mast-fruiting Dipterocarpaceae". Ecological Monographs. 70 (1): 101–128. doi:10.1890/0012-9615(2000)070[0101:VRTSVI]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2027.42/116363.
Maycock, Colin R.; R. N. Thewlis; J. Ghazoul; R. Nilus; David F. R. P. Burslem (2005). "Reproduction of dipterocarps during low intensity masting events in a Bornean rain forest". Journal of Vegetation Science. 16 (6): 635–46. doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2005)016[0635:RODDLI]2.0.CO;2.
Sakai, Shoko; Rhett D. Harrison; Kuniyasu Momose; Koichiro Kuraji; Hidetoshi Nagamasu; Tetsuzo Yasunari; Lucy Chong; Tohru Nakashizuka (2006). "Irregular droughts trigger mass flowering in aseasonal tropical forests in Asia". American Journal of Botany. 93 (8): 1134–39. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1134. PMID 21642179. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
LaFrankie, James V. Jr.; H. T. Chan (June 1991). "Confirmation of Sequential Flowering in Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae)". Biotropica. 23 (2): 200–203. doi:10.2307/2388308. JSTOR 2388308.
Chong, Kwek Yan; Chong, Rie; Tan, Lorraine W.A.; Yee, Alex T.K.; Chua, Marcus A.H.; Wong, Khoon Meng; Tan, Hugh T.W. (1 November 2016). "Seed production and survival of four dipterocarp species in degraded forests in Singapore". Plant Ecology & Diversity. 9 (5–6): 483–490. doi:10.1080/17550874.2016.1266404. S2CID 89849984.
"Dammar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
"Dipterocarpaceae Data Base—Taxonomic Information". Royal Botanical Gardens, Edinburgh. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
"Electronic Plant Information Centre". Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
"Minor oil crops - Individual monographs (Balanites-Borneo tallow nut-Brazil nut-Caryocar spp)". www.fao.org. FAO. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
"IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Shorea search results". IUCN. 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2013.

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World