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Sinapis arvensis

Sinapis arvensis, Cyprus, Photo:  Augusta Stylianou Artist

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Brassicales

Familia: Brassicaceae
Tribus: Brassiceae
Genus: Sinapis
Species: Sinapis arvensis
Subspecies: S. a. subsp. allionii – S. a. subsp. arvensis
Name

Sinapis arvensis L., 1753
Synonyms

Brassica arvensis (L.) Rabenh.
Sinapis arvensis var. nilotica O.E. Schulz

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 668. Reference page.

Links

Koch, M.A. et al. 2019. Sinapis arvensis in BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 26.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Sinapis arvensis. Published online. Accessed: May 26 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Sinapis arvensis in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 26.
Tropicos.org 2019. Sinapis arvensis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 26.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Sinapis arvensis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
العربية: خردل بري
català: Mostassa borda
kaszëbsczi: Ògniowô
čeština: hořčice polní, hořčice rolní
Cymraeg: Mwstard gwyllt
dansk: Ager-Sennep, Agersennep
Deutsch: Acker-Senf, Ackersenf
dolnoserbski: Rolny žonop
English: yellow charlock, charlock, kedlock, kelk, kilk, wild mustard, field mustard
español: mostaza de campo, flor de nabo, lentejilla, mostaza de los campos
eesti: Põldsinep
فارسی: خردل وحشی
suomi: Rikkasinappi
Nordfriisk: Ääker-Senep
français: Moutarde des champs, sanve, sene, senece, sénevé
Gaeilge: Praiseach bhuí
Gaelg: Brashlagh
עברית: חרדל השדה, חרדל הבר
हिन्दी: जंगली सरसों
hornjoserbsce: Rólny žonop
magyar: Vadrepce
italiano: Senape dei campi, Senape selvatica
қазақша: Жабайы қыша
lietuvių: Dirvinis garstukas
македонски: Полски синап
Plattdüütsch: Bruun Semp, Küük, Ackersemp, Ackersempf, Kürrick, Küddick, Küddik, Kürrik
Nederlands: Herik, krodde
norsk nynorsk: Åkersennep
ирон: Хуымы хъыцъы
polski: Gorczyca polna
português: mostarda-dos-campos
русский: Горчица полевая
slovenčina: horčica roľná
slovenščina: njivska gorjušica
српски / srpski: пољска горушица
svenska: Åker-Senap, Åkersenap
Türkçe: Yabani hardal

Sinapis arvensis

Sinapis arvensis, Photo:  Augusta Stylianou Artist


Sinapis arvensis, the charlock mustard, field mustard, wild mustard or charlock, is an annual or winter annual plant of the genus Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae. It is found in the fields of North Africa, Asia and Europe. Pieris rapae, the small white butterfly, and Pieris napi, the green veined white butterfly are significant consumers of charlock during their larval stages.

Description
Seedpods
Seeds

Sinapis arvensis reaches on average 20–80 centimetres (7.9–31.5 in) of height, but under optimal conditions can exceed one metre. The stems are erect, branched and striated, with coarse spreading hairs especially near the base.[2] The leaves are petiolate (stalked) with a length of 1–4 centimetres (0.39–1.57 in). The basal leaves are oblong, oval, lanceolate, lyrate, pinnatifid to dentate, 4–18 centimetres (1.6–7.1 in) long, 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) wide. The cauline leaves are much reduced and are short petiolate to sessile but not auriculate-clasping. It blooms from May to September, or May to August, in the UK.[3] The inflorescence is a raceme made up of yellow flowers having four petals with spreading sepals.[3][4] The fruit is a silique 3–5 cm long with a beak 1–2 cm long that is flattened-quadrangular. The valves of the silique are glabrous or rarely bristly, three to five nerved. The seeds are dark red or brown,[2] smooth 1-1.5 mm in diameter.
Phytochemistry

It contains chemicals of the class glucosinolates, including sinalbin.[5] The seeds contain a plant hormone, Gibberellic acid, which effects the dormancy of the seeds.[6]
Taxonomy

It was formerly described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication 'Species Plantarum' on page 668 in 1753.[7][8]

It is commonly known as charlock mustard,[9] field mustard,[10] wild mustard,[11] or charlock.[2][3]
Etymology

The genus name Sinapis derives from the Greek word sinapi meaning 'mustard'. The species name arvensis is a Latin adjective meaning 'from/of the field'.[12]
Distribution

A native of the Mediterranean basin, from temperate regions of North Africa, Europe and parts of Asia. It has also become naturalised throughout much of North America, South America, Australia, Japan and South Africa.[11]
Range

It is found in North Africa, within Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. Within Asia, it is found in Arabian Peninsula (in Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates), Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caucasus, China, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Siberia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is also found in tropical Pakistan. In eastern Europe, it is found within Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova and Ukraine. In middle Europe, it is in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland. In northern Europe, in Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In southeastern Europe, within Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Also in southwestern Europe, it is found in France, Portugal and Spain.[11]

Habitat

It grows in the plains and mountains, in pastures, fields, roadsides, waste places (such as railways, tips, and waste ground[3]), and ruins, but mainly in cultivated places.[2] It prefers calcareous soils in sunny places, at an altitude of 0–1,400 metres (0–4,593 ft) above sea level.

Ecology

The flowers are pollinated by various bees like Andrena agilissima and flies (entomophily). Sinapis arvensis is the host plant of the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, such as the small white, Pieris rapae. The seeds are toxic to most animals, except birds, and can cause gastrointestinal problems, especially if consumed in large quantities.

It is a highly invasive species in states such as California.[13]

Uses

The leaves of wild mustard are edible at the juvenile stage of the plant;[10] they are usually boiled,[3] such as in 18th century, in Dublin, where it was sold in the streets.[2] During the Great Famine of Ireland, wild mustard was a common famine food, even though it often caused stomach upset.[14][15][16] Once the seeds are ground, they produce a kind of mustard.[10]

A type of oil can be extracted from the seed which has been used for lubricating machinery.[3]
See also

Sinapsis alba, known as "yellow mustard" or "white mustard"

References

"Sinapis arvensis L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain. Reader's Digest. 1981. p. 42. ISBN 9780276002175.
"Charlock Sinapis arvensis". plantlife.org.uk. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012.Webb's An Irish Flora,ISBN 978-185918-4783
Popova, I.E.; Morra, M.J. (5 November 2014). "Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography". J Agric Food Chem. 62 (44): 10687–93. doi:10.1021/jf503755m. PMID 25314611.
Edwards, Miriam (1976). "Dormancy in Seeds of Charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.)". Plant Physiol. 58 (5): 626–630. doi:10.1104/pp.58.5.626. PMC 542271. PMID 16659732.
"Sinapis arvensis L. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
"Brassicaceae Sinapis arvensis L." ipni.org. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Sinapis arvensis". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
"Wild Mustard". wildfooduk.com. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
"Taxon: Sinapis arvensis L." ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
Archibald William Smith A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names: Their Meanings and Origins, p. 46, at Google Books
"Plant Assessment Form Sinapis arvensis". 7 August 2005. cal-ipc.org. 2017-10-03. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
McBride, Doreen (8 February 2018). The Little Book of Fermanagh. History Press. ISBN 9780750985406 – via Google Books.
Gribben, Arthur (1 March 1999). The Great Famine and the Irish Diaspora in America. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 31. ISBN 1558491732 – via Internet Archive.

"Holdings: Nettles and charlock as famine food". sources.nli.ie. 1959.

Environmental Library of the US Army Corps Engineers
Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C., 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore
Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982. Vol. I, pag. 473

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