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Spartium junceum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Genisteae
Genus: Spartium
Species: Spartium junceum
Name

Spartium junceum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 708 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Cytisus junceus (L.) Vuk., Rad Jugoslav. Akad. Znan. 31: 103 (1875).
Genista juncea (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 50 (1771).
Spartianthus junceus (L.) Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 223 (1822).
Heterotypic
Genista hispanica Garsault, Fig. Pl. Med. 2: t. 286. (1764), nom. inval., opus utiq. oppr.
Genista hispanica Thell., Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2., 8: 790. (1908).
Spartium acutifolium Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 23: t. 1974 (1837).
Genista acutifolia (Lindl.) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 3: 156 (1845).
Spartianthus americanus Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 614 (1841), nom. nud.
Spartium americanum (Steud.) Meyen, Observ. Bot. 1: 445 (1843), nom. illeg.
Genista americana (Steud.) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 3: 157 (1845), nom. illeg.
Genista odorata Moench, Methodus: 144 (1794).
Spartium odoratum (Moench) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 275 (1867).
Spartium odoratissimum D.Don ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 615 (1841), nom. nud.
Genista odoratissima (D.Don ex Steud.) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 3: 155 (1845), nom. nud.
Spartium japonicum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3: 43 (1867).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Great Britain (introduced).
Regional: Middle Europe
Belgium (introduced).
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria (introduced), Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania (introduced), Sicilia (Sicily, Malta), Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia).
Regional: Eastern Europe
Baltic States (Estonia), Krym, Ukraine (introduced).
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Libya (introduced), Morocco, Tunisia.
Regional: Macaronesia
Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira (introduced).
Regional: Northeast Tropical Africa
Ethiopia (introduced).
Regional: East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania (introduced).
Regional: South Tropical Africa
Angola (introduced).
Regional: Southern Africa
Cape Provinces, Northern Provinces (introduced).
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Middle Asia
Turkmenistan.
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus (introduced).
Regional: Western Asia
Afghanistan (introduced), East Aegean Islands, Iraq (introduced), Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey.
Regional: Eastern Asia
Japan (introduced).
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
East Himalaya, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya (introduced).
Regional: Malesia
Jawa (introduced).
Continental: Australasia
Regional: Australia
New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria (introduced).
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand North, New Zealand South (introduced).
Continental: Southern America
Regional: Central America
Guatemala (introduced).
Regional: Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru (introduced).
Regional: Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Chile North, Chile South, Uruguay (introduced).

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 708. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Spartium junceum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 12. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Spartium junceum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 12. Reference page.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Spartium junceum in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct 12.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Spartium junceum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: وزال
azərbaycanca: Qatırdırnağı
català: Ginesta
corsu: Ghjuncu
čeština: Vítečník sítinovitý
Cymraeg: Banhadlen Sbaen
Deutsch: Pfriemenginster
Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Σπάρτο
English: Spanish Broom
Esperanto: Spartio
español: Retama de olor
euskara: Espainiar isats
فارسی: گل طاووسی
suomi: Piiskaherne
français: Spartier à tiges de jonc
עברית: אחירותם החורש
hrvatski: Brnistra
magyar: Jeneszter
հայերեն: Կեմենի ճիպոտանման
italiano: Ginestra odorosa
日本語: レダマ
Napulitano: Inèštra
Nederlands: Bezemstruik
norsk: Spansk gyvel
polski: Szczodrzenica sitowata
português: Giesta
Runa Simi: Ritama
русский: Метельник
sardu: Giuncu aresti
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Brnistra
slovenščina: Žuka
српски / srpski: Жуква
svenska: Spanskginst
Türkçe: Katırtırnağı
українська: Іспанський дрок мітлистий
中文: 鷹爪豆屬

Spartium junceum, known as Spanish broom,[1] rush broom, or weaver's broom,[2] it is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae and the sole species in the genus Spartium.[3][4][5] It is closely related to the other brooms (in the genera Cytisus and Genista).

Taxonomy

The Greek name Spartium given to the genus denotes the use of the plant for 'cordage'.[6] The Latin specific epithet junceum means "rush-like", referring to the shoots, which show a passing resemblance to those of the rush genus Juncus.[7]
Distribution and habitat

This species is native to the Mediterranean in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa,[8] where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils.
Description

Spartium junceum is a vigorous, deciduous shrub growing to 2–4 m (7–13 ft) tall, rarely 5 m (16 ft), with main stems up to 5 cm (2 in) thick, rarely 10 cm (4 in). It has thick, somewhat succulent grey-green rush-like shoots with very sparse small deciduous leaves 1 to 3 cm long and up to 4 mm broad. The leaves are of little importance to the plant, with much of the photosynthesis occurring in the green shoots (a water-conserving strategy in its dry climate). The leaves fall away early.[9] In late spring and summer shoots are covered in profuse fragrant yellow pea-like flowers 1 to 2 cm across. In late summer, the legumes (seed pods) mature black and reach 8–10 cm (3–4 in) long. They burst open, often with an audible crack, spreading seed from the parent plant.
Cultivation and uses

The plant is used as an ornamental plant in gardens and in landscape plantings. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2][10]

In Bolivia and Peru, the plant is known as retama,[8] (not to be confused with the genus Retama) and has become very well established in some areas. It is one of the most common ornamental plants, often seen growing along sidewalks in La Paz.

Retama has made its way into the ethnobotany of the indigenous Aymara and Quechua cultures.

The plant is also used as a flavoring, and for its essential oil, known as genet absolute.[8][11] Its fibers have been used for cloth and it produces a yellow dye.[11][12]
As an invasive species

Spartium junceum has been widely introduced into other areas, and is regarded as a noxious invasive species in places with a Mediterranean climate such as California and Oregon, Hawaii, central Chile, southeastern Australia,[13] the Western Cape in South Africa and the Canary Islands and Azores.[8][14] It was first introduced to California as an ornamental plant.[14][15]

References

USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Spartium junceum". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
"RHS Plant Selector - Spartium junceum". Retrieved 14 February 2020.
"ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Spartium". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Spartium". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
"The Plant List entry for Spartium". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
"A Modern Herbal | Broom, Spanish". www.botanical.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley in association with the Royal Horticultural Society. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
"Spartium junceum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 December 2017.
Jepson Manual Treatment
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 99. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
FAO
botanical.com
"The NSW Government WeedWise Resource from the Department of Primary Industries".
US Forest Service Fire Ecology
Element Stewardship: S. junceum

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