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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Lemnoideae
Genus: Spirodela
Species: S. oligorrhiza – S. polyrhiza – S. punctata – S. sichuanensis

Spirodela Schleid., Linnaea 13: 391. 1839.

Type species: Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.


Landoltia Les & D.J.Crawford, Novon 9: 532. 2000 [1999 publ. 2000].


Schleiden, M.J. 1839. Prodromus Monographiae Lemnacearum oder Conspectus generum atque specierum. Linnaea 13(4): 385–392. BHL Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Spirodela in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Spirodela. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 11 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Spirodela in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 11.
Tropicos.org 2018. Spirodela. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 11.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Многакарэннік
čeština: závitka
Deutsch: Teichlinsen
English: duckweed, duckmeat
eesti: Vesilääts
suomi: Isolimaskat
עברית: אגמית
hornjoserbsce: Křěk
lietuvių: Maurė
Nederlands: veelwortelig kroos
polski: Spirodela
русский: Многокоренник
slovenčina: spirodelka
svenska: Storandmatssläktet
中文: 紫萍属

Spirodela is a genus of aquatic plants, one of several genera containing plants commonly called duckweed. Spirodela species are members of the Araceae under the APG II system. They were formerly members of the Lemnaceae.[2][3]

Spirodela species are free-floating thalli; two to five plants may remain connected to each other. Plants are green, but may have a red or brown underside. Multiple roots (seven to 12) emerge from each thallus. Spirodela is larger (10 mm (0.39 in)) than Lemna (2 mm (0.079 in) – 5 mm (0.20 in), one root per thallus).[4]

Certain species of Spirodela overwinter as turions, a dormant form that lacks air pockets, so sinks to the bottom of the pond. In spring, turions rise to the surface and germinate to start a new population.

Spirodela often forms floating mats with related species, e.g. Lemna and Wolffia.

The genus is virtually cosmopolitan in distribution.[1][4] Spirodela punctata is sometimes treated as Landoltia punctata.[5]

Spirodela oligorrhiza (Kurz) Hegelm. - Africa, Australia, southern Asia
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. - cosmopolitan
Spirodela punctata (G.Mey.) C.H.Thomps. - South America, Central America, West Indies
Spirodela sichuanensis M.G.Liu & K.M.Xie - southern China


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Landolt, E. (1986) Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae). Vol. 2. The family of Lemnaceae - A monographic study. Part 1 of the monograph: Morphology; karyology; ecology; geographic distribution; systematic position; nomenclature; descriptions. Veröff. Geobot. Inst., Stiftung Rübel, ETH, Zurich.
Flora of North America
Les, D. H. and D. J. Crawford. 1999. Landoltia (Lemnaceae), a new genus of duckweeds. Novon 9: 530-533.

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