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Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Sophoreae
Genus: Styphnolobium
Species: S. affine – S. burseroides – S. caudatum – S. conzattii – S. japonicum – S. monteviridis – S. parviflorum – S. protantherum – S. sporadicum
Name

Styphnolobium Schott, Wiener Z. Kunst 1830(3): 844. (1830)

Type species: Non designatus

Synonyms

Sophora sect. Styphnolobium (Schott) P.C.Tsoong, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 19(2): 161. (1981)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Southern America
Regional: Southern South America
Arkansas, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Oklahoma, Texas
Introduced into:
Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Free State, India, Iraq, Japan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, New York, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Romania, South European Russia, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zimbabwe

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References
Primary references

Schott, H.W. 1830. Wiener Zeitschrift für Kunst, Litteratur, Theater und Mode 1830(3): 844.

Additional references

Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Davis, T.Z. & Gardner, D.R. 2013. Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophyllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 49: 87-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2013.03.018 Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Styphnolobium in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 04. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Styphnolobium. Published online. Accessed: Jun 04 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Styphnolobium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 04.
Hassler, M. 2021. Styphnolobium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 04. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Styphnolobium. Accessed: 04 Jun 2021.

Vernacular names
čeština: Jerlín japonský
dansk: Pagodetræ-slægten
Deutsch: Japanischer Schnurbaum
español: Sófora
suomi: Pagodipuut

Styphnolobium is a small genus of three or four species of small trees and shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. It was recently assigned to the unranked, monophyletic Cladrastis clade.[1][2][3] They differ from the genus Calia (mescalbeans) in having deciduous leaves and flowers in axillary, not terminal, racemes. The leaves are pinnate, with 9–21 leaflets, and the flowers in pendulous racemes similar to those of the black locust. Necklacepod is a common name for plants in this genus.[4]

Etymology

From Greek styphno-, stryphno- "sour, astringent" and lobion "pod", because of the fresh pods' pulp taste.[5]
Species

Styphnolobium comprises the following species:[6][7][8]
Section Oresbios

Styphnolobium affine (Torr. & A. Gray) Walp., the coralbean or Eve's necklace is native to the southern United States in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana. It is a large shrub or small tree, growing to 5–7 m tall, with white or pale violet flowers. The seeds of this species are believed to be poisonous.[9] The sapwood leaches a yellow dye on contact with water.[10]

Styphnolobium burseroides M. Sousa & Rudd
Styphnolobium caudatum M. Sousa & Rudd is native to Nicaragua.
Styphnolobium conzattii (Standl.) M. Sousa & Rudd
Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd is native to Central America.
Styphnolobium parviflorum M. Sousa & Rudd
Styphnolobium protantherum M. Sousa & Rudd
Styphnolobium sporadicum M. Sousa & Rudd

Section Styphnolobium

Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the pagoda tree (Chinese Scholar, Japanese pagodatree; syn. Sophora japonica), is native to eastern Asia (mainly China; despite the name, it is introduced in Japan), is a popular ornamental tree in Europe, North America and South Africa, grown for its white flowers, borne in late summer after most other flowering trees have long finished flowering. It grows into a lofty tree 10–20 m tall with an equal spread, and produces a fine, dark brown timber.

Uses

The pagoda tree is widely used in bonsai gardening. The Guilty Chinese Scholartree was a historic pagoda tree in Beijing, on which the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Chongzhen, hanged himself.

Styphnolobium japonicum (Chinese: 槐; pinyin: huái; formerly Sophora japonica) is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.
References

Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes" (PDF). S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot. 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. PMID 23221500.
Wojciechowski MF (2013). "The origin and phylogenetic relationships of the Californian chaparral 'paleoendemic' Pickeringia (Leguminosae)". Syst Bot. 38 (1): 132–142. doi:10.1600/036364413X662024. S2CID 86331839.
"Styphnolobium". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
"Styphnolobium". Kew. Archived from the original on 2017-02-03. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
"ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Styphnolobium". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Styphnolobium". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
Sousa-Sánchez M, Rudd VE (1993). "Revisión del género Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)" [Revision of the genus Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)]. Ann Missouri Bot Gard. 80 (1): 270–283. doi:10.2307/2399827. ISSN 0026-6493. JSTOR 2399827.
"Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - the University of Texas at Austin".
"Dirt Doctor - Library Topics".

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