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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Astereae
Subtribus: Symphyotrichinae
Genus: Symphyotrichum
Subgenera: S. subg. Ascendentes – S. subg. Astropolium – S. subg. Chapmaniana – S. subg. Symphyotrichum – S. subg. Virgulus

Species: S. adnatum – S. anomalum – S. anticostense – S. ascendens – S. bimater – S. boreale – S. bullatum – S. burgessii – S. campestre – S. carnerosanum – S. chapmanii – S. chihuahuense – S. chilense – S. ciliatum – S. ciliolatum – S. concolor – S. cordifolium – S. defoliatum – S. depauperatum – S. drummondii – S. dumosum – S. eatonii – S. elliottii – S. ericoides – S. estesii – S. eulae – S. falcatum – S. fendleri – S. firmum – S. foliaceum – S. fontinale – S. frondosum – S. georgianum – S. glabrifolium – S. graminifolium – S. grandiflorum – S. greatae – S. hallii – S. hendersonii – S. hintonii – S. jessicae – S. laeve – S. lanceolatum – S. lateriflorum – S. laurentianum – S. lentum – S. leone – S. lucayanum – S. martii – S. molle – S. moranense – S. nahanniense – S. novae-angliae – S. novi-belgii – S. oblongifolium – S. ontarionis – S. oolentangiense – S. parviceps – S. patagonicum – S. patens – S. peteroanum – S. phlogifolium – S. pilosum – S. plumosum – S. porteri – S. potosinum – S. praealtum – S. pratense – S. prenanthoides – S. priceae – S. puniceum – S. purpurascens – S. pygmaeum – S. racemosum – S. regnellii – S. retroflexum – S. rhiannon – S. robynsianum – S. schaffneri – S. sericeum – S. shortii – S. simmondsii – S. spathulatum – S. subgeminatum – S. subspicatum – S. subulatum – S. tenuifolium – S. tradescantii – S. trilineatum – S. turbinellum – S. turneri – S. undulatum – S. urophyllum – S. vahlii – S. walteri – S. welshii – S. yukonense

Nothospecies: S. × amethystinum – S. × batesii – S. × columbianum – S. × finkii – S. × gravesii – S. × longulum – S. × salignum – S. × schistosum – S. × tardiflorum – S. × versicolor – S. × woldenii
Name

Symphyotrichum Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 135 (1832).

Type species: Symphyotrichum unctuosum Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. 135 (1832).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Bindera Raf., New Fl. 4: 71 (1836).
Type species: Bindera ciliata Raf., New Fl. 4: 71 (1836).
Aglotoma Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 44. (1836 publ. 1837).
Type species: Aglotoma multiflora (Aiton) Raf., Fl. Tell. 2: 44. (1836 publ. 1837).
Virgulus Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 46. 1836 publ. (1837).
Type species: Virgulus concolor (L.) Reveal & Keener, Taxon 30(3): 649. (1981)
Conyzanthus Tamamsch. in Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 25: 185, 583 (1959).
Type species: Conyzanthus graminifolius (Spreng.) Tamamsch. in Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 25: 185, 583 (1959).
Virgulaster Semple, Phytologia 58(7): 430 (1985).
Type species: Virgulaster ascendens (Lindl.) Semple, Phytologia 58(7): 430. (1985).

References

(List may be incomplete)
Primary references

Nees von Esenbeck, C.G.D. 1833. Genera et species asterearum. Recensuit, descriptionibus et animadversionibus illustravit. Latin. Sumtibus Leonardi Schrag, Norimbergae. 334 pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Rafinesque, C.S. 1837 ["1836"]. Flora Telluriana. Pars secunda. 112 pp. Printed for the author by H. Probasco, Philadelphia. BHL Reference page.
Rafinesque, C.S. 1836 [–1838]. New Flora and Botany of North America. Fourth Part. Neobotanon. BHL Reference page.
Reveal, J.L. & Keener, C.S. 1981. Virgulus Raf. (1837), an earlier name for Lasallea Greene (1903) (Asteraceae). Taxon 30(3): 648–651. JSTOR Reference page.
Semple, J.C. 1985. New names and combinations in Compositae, tribe Astereae. Phytologia 58(7): 429–431. BHL Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Symphyotrichum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul. 29. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Symphyotrichum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jul. 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Symphyotrichum. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 22 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Symphyotrichum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Mar. 22.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Symphyotrichum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 6 Apr 2006.

Vernacular names
čeština: astřička
dansk: Asters
Deutsch: Herbstastern
English: American Asters
suomi: Amerikanasterit
русский: Симфиотрихум, Сентябринки, Октябринки
slovenčina: astra

Symphyotrichum (/ˌsɪmfaɪəˈtrɪkəm/) is a genus of over 100 species and naturally occurring hybrids of herbaceous annual and perennial plants in the composite family Asteraceae, most which were formerly treated within the genus Aster. The majority are endemic to North America, but several also occur in the West Indies, Central and South America, as well as in eastern Eurasia. Several species have been introduced to Europe as garden specimens, most notably New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) and New York aster (Symphyotrichum novi-belgii).[2][3]

Description

Brouillet, et al. wrote:

Taxonomy of Symphyotrichum is difficult. Species are usually heterophyllous, some strongly so. Individuals in the spring, with basal rosettes, often have leaf shapes quite different from those with cauline leaves seen later in the season. Phyllary shape on first- and later-formed heads may differ. Individuals may vary considerably in plant size and array development depending upon growing conditions. The genetic diversity within each species also appears considerable.[2]

For all species in the genus, the ray florets are white, pink, blue, or purple. Disc florets are yellow to white, becoming pinkish, reddish purple, or brown when mature. There are 5 lobes on the disc florets of all species in the genus.[2]
Taxonomy

German botanist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck established this genus in 1833 because he thought that a plant he examined, now believed to be a cultivated variety of New York aster (Symphyotrichum novi-belgii), which he called Symphyotrichum unctuosum, was sufficiently distinct from the rest of the genus Aster to warrant its own genus. Nees emphasized the uniqueness of this plant in having its pappus hairs arranged in a coherent, basal ring.[4] This structure is the basis for the scientific name of this genus, which derives from Ancient Greek σύμφυσις (sýmphysis) "growing together" and θρίξ (thríks; stem τριχ- trich-) "hair". However, this characteristic ring is not generally shared by most New York aster pappi, nor is it characteristic of any other plants included in the modern concept of Symphyotrichum. Regardless, according to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), the timing of the genus' establishment gives it precedence over other names. The genus was resurrected in 1994 by American botanist Guy L. Nesom to group together species formerly included in the genus Aster in order to make modern genera monophyletic.[5]
Subdivisions

Symphyotrichum has been divided into five subgenera:
Subgenus Ascendentes

This subgenus includes two species from the western United States and Canada that originated as hybrids between species in the subgenera Symphyotrichum and Virgulus.[2][6]
Subgenus Astropolium

This subgenus includes about 10 species found across the Americas in salt marshes and salt flats.[2][7]
Subgenus Chapmaniana

This subgenus includes a single species, S. chapmanii, found in Alabama and Florida.[2]
Subgenus Symphyotrichum

This subgenus includes about 65 species occurring across North America, including a few species in Central America and the Caribbean, with one species also occurring in Eurasia.[2]
Subgenus Virgulus

This subgenus includes about 28 species occurring across North America, including a few species in Central America and the Caribbean.[2]
Distribution

As a whole, Symphyotrichum is native throughout the Americas, with one species, S. ciliatum, also native to eastern Eurasia. Several species have been introduced to Europe and other parts of the world.[2] Most species are native to Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with several species occurring in the West Indies and Central America.[2][8][9][10] Most members of subgenus Astropolium are restricted to South America.[7][11]
Species
Main article: List of Symphyotrichum species

As of June 2021, Catalogue of Life listed 106 accepted species and identified naturally-occurring hybrids, including the following:[12]

Symphyotrichum ascendens (Lindl.) G.L.Nesom – western aster, longleaf aster, intermountain aster
Symphyotrichum campestre (Nutt.) G.L.Nesom – western meadow aster
Symphyotrichum chilense (Nees) G.L.Nesom – Pacific aster, common California aster
Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G.L.Nesom – heartleaf aster, common blue wood aster
Symphyotrichum defoliatum (Parish) G.L.Nesom – San Bernardino aster
Symphyotrichum depauperatum (Fernald) G.L.Nesom – serpentine aster
Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L.Nesom – bushy aster, rice-button aster,
Symphyotrichum eatonii (A.Gray) G.L.Nesom – Eaton's aster
Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L.Nesom – white aster, heath aster
Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L.Nesom – white prairie aster, falcate aster, western heath aster
Symphyotrichum frondosum (Nutt.) G.L.Nesom – short-rayed alkali aster
Symphyotrichum georgianum (Alexander) G.L.Nesom – Georgia aster
Symphyotrichum greatae (Parish) G.L.Nesom – Greata's aster
Symphyotrichum hallii (A.Gray) G.L.Nesom – Hall's aster
Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve – smooth aster, smooth leaved aster, glaucous aster
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G.L.Nesom – panicled aster, tall white aster
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve – calico aster
Symphyotrichum lentum (Greene) G.L.Nesom – Suisun Marsh aster
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L.Nesom – New England aster
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L.Nesom – New York aster
Symphyotrichum oblongifolium (Nutt.) G.L.Nesom – aromatic aster
Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G.L.Nesom – sky-blue aster, azure aster
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L.Nesom – hairy aster, frost aster
Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (Muhl. ex Willd.) G.L.Nesom – crooked-stem aster
Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve – purplestem aster, red-stemmed aster, swamp aster
Symphyotrichum sericeum (Vent.) G.L.Nesom – western silver aster, silky aster
Symphyotrichum shortii (Lindl.) G.L.Nesom – Short's aster
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) G.L.Nesom – eastern annual saltmarsh aster

Citations

POWO 2021a.
Brouillet et al. 2006.
Everitt, Lonard & Little 2007.
Nees von Esenbeck 1833.
Nesom 1994.
Semple n.d.a.
Semple n.d.b.
Gann 2021.
Britton 1914.
POWO 2021b.
Hind & Strange 2019.

Hassler 2021.

References

Britton, N.L. (January 1914). "Studies of West Indian Plants-V". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 41 (1): 1–24. doi:10.2307/2479432. Retrieved 27 January 2021 – via JSTOR.
Brouillet, L.; Semple, J.C.; Allen, G.A.; Chambers, K.L.; Sundberg, S.D. (2006). "Symphyotrichum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 4 November 2020 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2.
Gann, G.D. (2021). "Symphyotrichum lucayanum (Britton) G.L. Nesom - Pineland aster". Floristic Inventory of the Bahama Archipelago Database Online (BETA). Delray Beach, Florida: The Institute for Regional Conservation. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
Hassler, M. (17 March 2021). "Symphyotrichum Nees – World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World". In Roskov, Y.; Ower, G.; Orrell, T.; Nicolson, D.; Bailly, N.; Kirk, P.M.; Bourgoin, T.; DeWalt, R.E.; Decock, W.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Penev, L. (eds.). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 10 June 2021. Catalogue of Life. Leiden, Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center. ISSN 2405-8858. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
Hind, N.; Strange, K. (4 January 2019). "Symphyotrichum vahlii". Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 35 (4): 380–395. doi:10.1111/curt.12259.
Nees von Esenbeck, C.G.D. (1833). Genera et species asterearum [Genera and Species of the Astereae] (in Latin). Nuremberg: Leonardi Schrag. p. 135. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.46989 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
Nesom, G.L. (September 1994). "Review of the taxonomy of Aster sensu lato (Asteraceae: Astereae), emphasizing the New World species". Phytologia. Huntsville, Texas: Michael J. Warnock (published 31 January 1995). 77 (3): 141–297. ISSN 0031-9430. Retrieved 24 December 2020 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
POWO (2021a). "Symphyotrichum Nees". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
POWO (2021b). "Symphyotrichum leonis (Britton) G.L.Nesom". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
Semple, J.C. (n.d.a). "Symphyotrichum subg. Ascendentes". www.uwaterloo.ca. Ontario. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
Semple, J.C. (n.d.b). "Symphyotrichum subg. Astropolium". www.uwaterloo.ca. Ontario. Retrieved 6 December 2020.

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