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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Tageteae
Genus: Tagetes
Name

Tagetes L.

Type species: T. erecta L.

Synonyms

Diglossus Cass.
Enalcida Cass.
Solenotheca Nutt.
Vilobia Strother

Species

T. apetala – T. arenicola – T. argentinaT. biflora - T. campanulata – T. coronopifolia – T. dianthiflora - T. elliptica – T. elongata – T. epapposa –T. erecta - T. erythrocephala - T. filifolia - T. foetidissima - T. gracilis - T. hartwegii – T. heterocarpha – T. inclusa – T. lacera – T. laxa – T. lemmonii – T. linifolia – T. lucida – T. lunulata – T. mendocina – T. micrantha – T. microglossa – T. minima – T. minuta – T. moorei – T. mulleri – T. multiflora – T. nelsonii – T. oaxacana – T. osteni – T. palmeri – T. parryi – T. patula – T. pectinata – T. perezii – T. pringlei – T. remotiflora – T. riojana – T. rupestris – T. stenophylla - T. subulata – T. subvillosa – T. tenuifolia - T. terniflora – T. triradiata – T. verticillata - T. zyaquirensis

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 887.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Tagetes. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 16. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Tagetes. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 16 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Tagetes in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 16.
Tropicos.org 2018. Tagetes. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 16.

Vernacular names
অসমীয়া: নাৰ্জী
беларуская: Аксаміткі
বাংলা: গাঁদা
Deutsch: Studentenblum
English: marigold
suomi: Samettikukat
français: Tagète
magyar: Bársonyvirág
Nederlands: Afrikaantje
русский: Бархатцы
Türkçe: Kadife çiçeği

Tagetes /tæˈdʒiːtiːz/ is a genus[2] of annual or perennial, mostly herbaceous plants in the sunflower family Asteraceae. They are among several groups of plants known in English as marigolds. The genus Tagetes was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.[3][4]

The plants are native to the Americas, growing naturally from the southwestern United States into South America, but some species have become naturalized around the world. One species, T. minuta, is considered a noxious invasive plant in some areas.[2]

Description

Tagetes species vary in size from 0.1 to 2.2 m tall. Most species have pinnate green leaves. Blooms naturally occur in golden, orange, yellow, and white colors, often with maroon highlights. Floral heads are typically (1-) to 4–6 cm diameter, generally with both ray florets and disc florets. In horticulture, they tend to be planted as annuals, although the perennial species are gaining popularity. They have fibrous roots.

Depending on the species, Tagetes species grow well in almost any sort of soil. Most horticultural selections grow best in soil with good drainage, and some cultivars are known to have good tolerance to drought.[5]
Nomenclature

The Latin Tagētes derives from the name of the Etruscan Tages, born from the plowing of the earth.[6] It likely refers to the ease with which plants of this genus come out each year either by the seeds produced in the previous year, or by the stems which regrow from the stump already in place.[7]

The common name in English, marigold, is derived from Mary's gold, a name first applied to a similar plant native to Europe, Calendula officinalis.

The most commonly cultivated varieties of Tagetes are known variously as African marigolds (usually referring to cultivars and hybrids of Tagetes erecta), or French marigolds (usually referring to hybrids and cultivars of Tagetes patula, many of which were developed in France). The so-called signet marigolds are hybrids derived mostly from Tagetes tenuifolia.
Cultivation and uses
Tagetes patula flowers

Depending on the species, marigold foliage has a musky, pungent scent, though some varieties have been bred to be scentless. It is said to deter some common insect pests, as well as nematodes. Tagetes species — notably T. patula — are hence often used in companion planting for tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, tobacco, and potato. Due to antibacterial thiophenes exuded by the roots, Tagetes should not be planted near any legume crop.[8] Some of the perennial species are deer-, rabbit-, rodent- and javelina or peccary-resistant.[8]

T. minuta (khakibush or huacatay), originally from South America, has been used as a source of essential oil for the perfume and industry known as tagette or "marigold oil", and as a flavourant in the food and tobacco industries. It is commonly cultivated in South Africa, where the species is also a useful pioneer plant in the reclamation of disturbed land.
Gonepteryx rhamni sucking nectar

The florets of Tagetes erecta are rich in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and are used as a food colour (INS number E161b) in the European Union for foods such as pasta, vegetable oil, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, baked goods, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, citrus juice and mustard. In the United States, however, the powders and extracts are only approved as colorants in poultry feed.

Marigolds are recorded as a food plant for some Lepidoptera caterpillars including the dot moth, and a nectar source for other butterflies and bumblebees. They are often part of butterfly gardening plantings. In the wild, many species are pollinated by beetles.[8]
Cultural significance
Tagetes lucida

The species Tagetes lucida, known as pericón, is used to prepare a sweetish, anise-flavored medicinal tea in Mexico. It is also used as a culinary herb in many warm climates, as a substitute for tarragon, and offered in the nursery as "Texas tarragon" or "Mexican mint marigold".
Tagetes minuta

Tagetes minuta, native to southern South America, is a tall, upright marigold plant with small flowers used as a culinary herb in Peru, Ecuador, and parts of Chile and Bolivia, where it is called by the Incan term huacatay. The paste is used to make the popular potato dish called ocopa. Having both "green" and "yellow/orange" notes, the taste and odor of fresh T. minuta is like a mixture of sweet basil, tarragon, mint and citrus. It is also used as a medicinal tea for gastrointestinal complaints and specifically against nematodes.[9][10]
Tagetes - various species
Marigolds decorating a grave for Day of the Dead in Mexico

The marigold was regarded as the flower of the dead in pre-Hispanic Mexico, parallel to the lily in Europe, and is still widely used in the Day of the Dead celebrations.

It is always sold in the markets for daily worships and rituals. The marigold is also widely cultivated in India and Thailand, particularly the species T. erecta, T. patula, and T. tenuifolia. Vast quantities of marigolds are used in garlands and decoration for weddings, festivals, and religious events. Marigold cultivation is extensively seen in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh (for Deepawali market[11]) states of India.

In Ukraine, chornobryvtsi (T. erecta, T. patula, and the signet marigold, l. tenuifolia) are regarded as one of the national symbols, and are often mentioned in songs, poems, and tales.


Species

Accepted species[12]

Tagetes apetala
Tagetes arenicola
Tagetes argentina Cabrera
Tagetes biflora Cabrera
Tagetes campanulata Griseb.
Tagetes daucoides
Tagetes elliptica Sm.
Tagetes elongata
Tagetes epapposa
Tagetes erecta L. – African marigold, Aztec marigold
Tagetes filifolia Lag.
Tagetes foeniculacea
Tagetes foetidissima DC.
Tagetes hartwegii Greenm.
Tagetes iltisiana Rydb.
Tagetes inclusa
Tagetes lacera
Tagetes laxa Cabrera
Tagetes lemmonii A.Gray – Mt. Lemmon marigold, Mexican marigold[13]
Tagetes linifolia
Tagetes lucida Cav. – Mexican mint marigold, Texas tarragon
Tagetes mandonii
Tagetes mendocina Phil.
Tagetes micrantha Cav. – licorice marigold
Tagetes microglossa
Tagetes minima
Tagetes minuta L. – wild marigold
Tagetes moorei
Tagetes mulleri S.F.Blake
Tagetes multiflora Kunth
Tagetes nelsonii Greenm.
Tagetes oaxacana
Tagetes osteni
Tagetes palmeri
Tagetes parryi A.Gray
Tagetes patula L. – French marigold
Tagetes perezii Cabrera
Tagetes praetermissa
Tagetes pringlei S.Watson
Tagetes pusilla
Tagetes riojana M.Ferraro
Tagetes rupestris Cabrera
Tagetes stenophylla B.L.Rob.
Tagetes subulata Cerv.
Tagetes subvillosa
Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. – signet marigold
Tagetes terniflora Kunth
Tagetes triradiata
Tagetes verticillata Lag. & Rodr.
Tagetes zypaquirensis Humb. & Bonpl.

References

"Genus: Tagetes L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2011-01-06. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
Soule, J. A. 1996. Infrageneric Systematics of Tagetes. Pgs. 435-443 in Compositae: Systematics, Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew 1994, Vol. I, Eds. D.J.N. Hind & H.J. Beentje.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 887 in Latin
"Tropicos | Name - !Tagetes L." www.tropicos.org.
Cicevan R, Al Hassan M, Sestras AF, Prohens J, Vicente O, Sestras RE, Boscaiu M. (2016) Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae) PeerJ 4:e2133 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2133
Everett, Thomas H. (1982). The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. p. 3290. ISBN 978-0-8240-7240-7.
Filippi, Olivier (2007). Pour un jardin sans arrosage (For a garden without irrigation) (in French). Arles: Actes Sud. p. 188. ISBN 978-2-7427-6730-4.
Soule, J. A. 1993. Biosystematics of Tagetes (Compositae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas.
Weaver, David K.; Wells, Carl D.; Dunkel, Florence V.; Bertsch, Wolfgang; Sing, Sharlene E.; Sriharan, Shobha (1 December 1994). "Insecticidal Activity of Floral, Foliar, and Root Extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) Against Adult Mexican Bean Weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)". Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (6): 1718–1725. doi:10.1093/jee/87.6.1718.
Soule, J. A. 1993. Tagetes minuta: A Potential New Herb from South America. Pgs. 649-654 in New Crops, Proceedings of the New Crops Conference 1993, Eds. J. Janick & J. E. Simon.
Gupta, Y.C.; Y. D. Sharma; N.S. Pathania (2002-09-09). "Let the flower of gods bless you". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India (web site). Retrieved 2007-09-01.
The Plant List, search for Tagetes
"Plants Profile for Tagetes lemmonii (Lemmon's marigold)". plants.usda.gov.

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