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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Ajugoideae
Genus: Teucrium
Species

T. abolhayatensis – T. abutiloides – T. africanum – T. afrum – T. aladagense – T. albicaule – T. albidum – T. alborubrum – T. algarbiense – T. alopecurus – T. alpestre – T. alyssifolium – T. amplexicaule – T. andrusi – T. angustissimum – T. anlungense – T. annandalei – T. antiatlanticum – T. antilibanoticum – T. antitauricum – T. apollinis – T. aragonense – T. arduinoi – T. argutum – T. aristatum – T. aroanium – T. asiaticum – T. atratum – T. aureiforme – T. aureocandidum – T. aureum – T. balearicum – T. balfourii – T. balthazaris – T. baokang – T. barbarum – T. barbeyanum – T. betchei – T. betonicum – T. bicolor – T. bicoloreum – T. bidentatum – T. bogoutdinovae – T. botrys – T. brachyandrum – T. bracteatum – T. brevifolium – T. bullatum – T. burmanicum – T. buxifolium – T. campanulatum – – T. canum – T. capitatum – T. carolipauiT. carthaginense – T. caucasigenum – T. cavanillesianum – T. cavernarum – T. chamaedrys – T. chardonianum – T. charidemi – T. chasmophyticum – T. chlorocephalum – T. chlorostachyum – T. chrysotrichum – T. chowii – T. cincinnatum – T. clementiae – T. coahuilanum – T. compactum – T. coniortodes – T. corymbiferum – T. corymbosum – T. cossonii – T. creticum – T. cubense – T. cuneifolium – T. cyprium – T. cyrenaicum – T. davaeanum – T. dealianum – T. decaisnei – T. decipiens – T. demnatense – T. disjunctum – T. divaricatum – T. doumerguei – T. ducellieri – T. dumulosum – T. dunense – T. eburneum – T. edetanum – T. ekimii – T. embergeri – T. eremaeum – T. eriocephalum – T. eximium – T. expassum – T. faurei – T. fililobum – T. flavum – T. fragile – T. franchetianum – T. francisci-werneri – T. francoi – T. freynii – T. fruticans – T. gabrieliae – T. gattefossei – T. glandulosum – T. gnaphalodes – T. goetzei – T. gracile – T. grandifolium – T. grandiusculum – T. grisebachii – T. grosii – T. guizhouense – T. gypsophilum – T. haenseleri – T. halacsyanum – T. haradjanii – T. helichrysoides – T. heterophyllum – T. heterotrichum – T. heynei – T. hieronymi – T. hifacense – T. hijazicum – T. hircanicum – T. homotrichum – T. huotii – T. integrifolium – T. intricatum – T. japonicum – T. joannis – T. jolyi – T. jordanicum – T. junceum – T. kabylicum – T. karpasiticum – T. kotschyanum – T. kraussii – T. krymense – T. kyreniae – T. labiosum – T. laciniatum – T. lamiifolium – T. lanigerum – T. laxum – T. leonis – T. lepicephalum – T. leucocladum – T. leucophyllum – T. libanitis – T. lini-vaccarii – T. lucidum – T. lusitanicum – T. luteum – T. macrophyllum – T. macrum – T. maghrebinum – T. malenconianum – T. manghuaense – T. marum – T. mascatense – T. massiliense – T. melissoides – T. mesanidum – T. micranthum – T. microphyllum – T. micropodioides – T. mideltense – T. miragestorum – T. mitecum – T. moleromesae – T. montanum – T. montbretii – T. muletii – T. multicaule – T. murcicum – T. musimonum – T. myriocladum – T. nanum – T. novorossicum – T. nudicaule – T. nummularifolium – T. odontites – T. oliverianum – T. omeiense – T. orientale – T. ornatum – T. oxylepis – T. ozturkii – T. paederotoides – T. parviflorum – T. parvifolium – T. pernyi – T. persicum – T. pestalozzae – T. petelotii – T. pilbaranum – T. plectranthoides – T. polioides – T. polium – T. popovii – T. procerum – T. proctorii – T. pruinosum – T. pseudaroanium – T. pseudochamaepitys – T. pseudoscorodonia – T. puberulum – T. pugionifolium – T. pumilum – T. pyrenaicum – T. quadrifarium – T. racemosum – T. radicans – T. ramaswamii – T. ramosissimum – T. reidii – T. resupinatum – T. rhodocalyx – T. rifanum – T. rigidum – T. rivas-martinezii – T. rixanense – T. ronnigeri – T. rotundifolium – T. rouyanum – T. royleanum – T. rupestre – T. salaminium – T. salviastrum – T. sandrasicum – T. sanguisorbifolium – T. santae – T. sauvagei – T. scabrum – T. schoenenbergeri – T. scordium – T. scorodonia – T. serpylloides – T. sessiliflorum – T. shanicum – T. siculum – T. similatum – T. simplex – T. sirnakense – T. socinianum – T. socotranum – T. somalense – T. spinosum – T. stachyophyllum – T. stocksianum – T. subspinosum – T. taiwanianum – T. tananicum – T. teinense – T. terciae – T. teresanum – T. teucriiflorum – T. thieleanum – T. thymifolium – T. thymoides – T. townsendii – T. trifidum – T. tsinlingense – T. turcicum – T. turredanum – T. ussuriense – T. veronicoides – T. vesicarium – T. vincentinum – T. viscidum – T. wattii – T. webbianum – T. werneri – T. wightii – T. yemense – T. zaianum – T. zanoniiT. canadense
Nothospecies

T. × alexeenkoanum – T. × alvarezii – T. × badiae – T. × bergadense – T. × bubanii – T. × carmelitanum – T. × carvalhoae – T. × coeleste – T. × conquense – T. × contejeanii – T. × djebalicum – T. × eloualidii – T. × estevei – T. × gnaphaureum – T. × guarae-requenae – T. × guemesii – T. × lucidrys – T. × maestracense – T. × mailhoi – T. × mateoi – T. × motae – T. × mugronense – T. × navarroi – T. × portusmagni – T. × pseudoaragonense – T. × pseudothymifolium – T. × pujolii – T. × rigualii – T. × riosii – T. × riverae – T. × robledoi – T. × rubrovirens – T. × sagarrae – T. × scorolepis – T. × turianum

Name

Teucrium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 562 (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 247 (1754).

Lectotype species: Teucrium fruticans L., Sp. Pl. 2: 563 (1753), designated by N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 3: 101 (1913), supported by M.L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 164. Aug 1929.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Chamaedrys Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754).
Polium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754).
Scordium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754).
Scorodonia Hill, Brit. Herb.: 372 (1756), nom. illeg.
Iva Fabr., Enum.: 45 (1759), nom. illeg.
Melosmon Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
Monipsis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
Scorbion Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
Trixago Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
Poliodendron Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3: 106 (1845).
Spartothamnus A.Cunn. ex Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6: 694 (1847), nom. illeg.
Teucridium Hook.f., Fl. Nov.-Zel. 1: 203 (1853).
Monochilon Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 405 (1867).
Botrys Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 138 (1869).
Oncinocalyx F.Muell., S. Sci. Rec. 3: 69 (1883).
Spartothamnella Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 161 (1894).
Kinostemon Kudô, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 19: 1 (1929).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 562. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 247. Reference page.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 3: 101. Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Jarvis, C.E. 2007. Order out of Chaos: Linnaean Plant Names and their Types. London: Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, ISBN 978-0-9506207-7-0, p. 273. Reference page.
Salmaki, Y., Kattari, S., Heubl, G. & Bräuchler, C. 2016. Phylogeny of non-monophyletic Teucrium (Lamiaceae: Ajugoideae): Implications for character evolution and taxonomy. Taxon 65(4): 805–822. DOI: 10.12705/654.8 ResearchGate Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Teucrium in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 1. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Teucrium. Published online. Accessed: June 2 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Teucrium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 2.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Teucrium in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 March 16.

Vernacular names
العربية: جعدة
azərbaycanca: Məryəmnoxudu
беларуская: Дуброўнік
čeština: ožanka
dansk: Kortlæbe
Deutsch: Gamander
English: Germander
Esperanto: Teŭkrio
español: Zamarrilla
فارسی: مریم‌نخودی
suomi: Teurikat
français: Germandrée
עברית: געדה
hornjoserbsce: Dubčica
հայերեն: Լերդախոտ
ქართული: კუტი ბალახი
қазақша: Еменшөп
한국어: 곽향속
lietuvių: Berutis
Nederlands: Gamander
norsk: Firtannslekta
polski: Ożanka
русский: Дубровник
slovenčina: hrdobarka
shqip: Arrësi
svenska: Gamandrar
Türkçe: Kısamahmut
中文: 香科科属


Teucrium is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, commonly known as germanders.[2] Plants in this genus are perennial herbs or shrubs, with branches that are more or less square in cross-section, leaves arranged in opposite pairs, and flowers arranged in thyrses, the corolla with mostly white to cream-coloured, lobed petals.

Description

Plants in the genus Teucrium are perennial herbs or shrubs with four-cornered stems, often with simple hairs and sessile glands. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, simple or with three leaflets sometimes with lobed or serrated edges. The flowers are arranged in a thyrse, sometimes in a cyme in leaf axils. The flowers have five more or less similar sepals fused at the base, and the corolla is white or cream-coloured with five lobes forming two lips. The upper lip is usually much reduced in size and the lower lip has three lobes, the central lobe usually larger than the side lobes. There are four stamens attached near the base of the petals and the fruit is a schizocarp with four segments.[3][4][5][6][7]
Taxonomy

The genus Teucrium was first formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum.[8][9] The name Teucrium was used by Pedanius Dioscorides for several species in this genus, and is believed to refer to King Teucer of Troy who used the plant in his medicine.[10][11]
Species

(See also List of Teucrium species)
Scurfy germander (T. albicaule)
Teucrium capitatum
Tree germander (T. fruticans)

Teucrium is a cosmopolitan genus with about 300 species, the distribution centred on the Mediterranean. There are about thirteen species endemic to Australia.[4][5]
Selected species

Teucrium albicaule Toelken – scurfy germander (Australia)
Teucrium arduinoi L.
Teucrium argutum R.Br. – native germander (Qld., N.S.W.)
Teucrium aroanium Orph. ex Boiss.
Teucrium balfourii Vierh.
Teucrium balthazaris Sennen
Teucrium betonicum L'Hér.
Teucrium botrys L. – cut-leaved germander
Teucrium canadense L. – American germander, Canada germander, wood sage, hairy germander
Teucrium capitatum L.
Teucrium carolipaui C. Vicioso ex Pau
Teucrium chamaedrys L. – wall germander
Teucrium chardonianum Maire & Wilczek
Teucrium coahuilanum B.L.Turner
Teucrium corymbosum R.Br. – forest germander (Australia, New Guinea)
Teucrium cossonii D.Wood – fruity teucrium
Teucrium creticum L.
Teucrium cubense Jacq. – small coastal germander, dwarf germander
Teucrium eremaeum Diels (W.A.)
Teucrium divaricatum Sieber ex Heldr.
Teucrium flavum L.
Teucrium fruticans L. – tree germander, shrubby germander
Teucrium glandulosum Kellogg – common germander, desert germander, sticky germander
Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér.
Teucrium grandiusculum F.Muell. & Tate (W.A., S.A., N.T.)
Teucrium heterophyllum L’Hér.
Teucrium integrifolium Benth. – teucry weed (W.A., N.T., Qld.)
Teucrium laciniatum Torr. – germander, lacy germander
Teucrium lepicephalum Pau
Teucrium marum L.
Teucrium massiliense L.
Teucrium montanum L.
Teucrium oliverianum Ging. ex Benth.
Teucrium orientale L. – oriental germander
Teucrium polium L.
Teucrium pseudochamaepitys L.
Teucrium pyrenaicum L.
Teucrium racemosum – forest germander
Teucrium scordium L.
Teucrium scorodonia L. – woodland germander
Teucrium socotranum Vierh.
Teucrium subspinosum Pourr. ex Willd.
Teucrium townsendii
Teucrium townsendii ssp. affine
Teucrium townsendii var. townsendii
Teucrium vesicarium Mill.
Teucrium viscidum Blume
Teucrium werneri Emb.

Fossil record

†Teucrium tatjanae seed fossils are known from the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of western Siberia, Miocene and Pliocene of central and southern Russia and Miocene of Lusatia. The fossil seeds are similar to seeds of the extant Teucrium orientale.[12] †Teucrium pripiatense seed fossils have been described from the Pliocene Borsoni Formation in the Rhön Mountains of central Germany.[13]
References

"Teucrium L." World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Teucrium". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
"Teucrium". Flora of China. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
Conn, Barry J. "Teucrium". Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
Conn, Barry J. "Genus Teucrium". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
"Teucrium". State Herbarium of South Australia. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
"Teucrium". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions.
"Teucrium". APNI. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
Linnaeus, Carl (1753). Species Plantarum. p. 562. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
Sharr, Francis Aubi; George, Alex (2019). Western Australian Plant Names and Their Meanings (3rd ed.). Kardinya, WA: Four Gables Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780958034180.
Grieve, Maude (1971). A Modern Herbal. Courier Dover Publications. p. 351. ISBN 978-0-486-22798-6.
The Pliocene flora of Kholmech, south-eastern Belarus and its correlation with other Pliocene floras of Europe by Felix Yu. VELICHKEVICH and Ewa ZASTAWNIAK - Acta Palaeobot. 43(2): 137–259, 2003
The floral change in the tertiary of the Rhön mountains (Germany) by Dieter Hans Mai - Acta Paleobotanica 47(1): 135-143, 2007.

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