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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Melanthiaceae
Tribus: Melanthieae

Genus: Toxicoscordion
Species: T. brevibracteatum – T. exaltatum – T. fontanum – T. fremontii – T. micranthum – T. nuttallii – T. paniculatum – T. venenosum

Toxicoscordion Rydb., 1903.

Typus: T. intermedium (Rydb.) Rydb. = T. venenosum var. gramineum (Rydb.) Brasher


Chitonia Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 51. 1866, nom. illeg.


Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2010 Sept 27 [1].
Govaerts, R. & al. 2006. World Checklist of selected plant families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2010 Sept 27 [2]
Rydberg, P.A 1903. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 30: 272.

Vernacular names

Toxicoscordion is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae, tribe Melanthieae, first described as a genus in 1903.[2][3] The genus is mainly distributed in the midwestern United States and western North America, with some species in western Canada and northern Mexico.[1][4][5]

Molecular phylogenetic studies in the 21st century have resulted in number of changes to placements within this tribe. Toxicoscordion was long submerged into the genus Zigadenus, but its separate position in the phylogeny of the Melanthieae has been confirmed.[5] Members of Toxicoscordion may also be distinguished from other similar members of the deathcamas tribe by the presence of narrow, clawed tepals with a single, conspicuous, rounded gland.


Toxicoscordion brevibracteatum (syn. Zigadenus brevibracteatus) - desert deathcamas - Baja California, Sonora, California
Toxicoscordion exaltatum (syn. Zigadenus exaltatus) - giant deathcamas - California, Nevada
Toxicoscordion fontanum (syn. Zigadenus fontanus) - smallflower deathcamas - California
Toxicoscordion fremontii (syn. Zigadenus fremontii) - Frèmont's deathcamas, star zigadene (several varieties) - Baja California, Oregon, California
Toxicoscordion micranthum (syn. Zigadenus micranthus) - smallflower deathcamas - Oregon, California
Toxicoscordion nuttallii (syn. Zigadenus nuttallii) - Nuttall's deathcamas - SC United States
Toxicoscordion paniculatum (syn. Zigadenus paniculatus) - foothill deathcamas, sand-corn - W United States
Toxicoscordion venenosum (syn. Zigadenus venenosus) - death camas, meadow deathcamas - W Canada, W USA, Baja California


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Rydberg, Per Axel. 1903. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 30(5): 272–273 in English
Tropicos, Toxicoscordion Rydb.
Zomlefer, W. B.; N. H. Williams; W. M. Whitten; W. S. Judd (2001). "Generic circumscriptions and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: Evidence from ITS and TRNL-F sequence data". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 88 (9): 1657–1669. doi:10.2307/3558411. JSTOR 3558411. PMID 21669700.
Zomlefer, W. B.; W. S. Judd (2002). "Resurrection of segregates of the polyphyletic genus Zigadenus s.l. (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and resulting new combinations". Novon. 12 (2): 299–308. doi:10.2307/3392971. JSTOR 3392971.
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps

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