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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Orobanchaceae
Tribus: Pedicularideae
Genus: Triphysaria
Species: T. chinensis – T. eriantha – T. floribunda – T. micrantha – T. pusilla – T. versicolor

Triphysaria Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 2: 52. (1836)
Type species: Triphysaria versicolor Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Index Seminum [St. Petersburg] 2: 52. (1836)


Fischer, F.E.L von & Meyer, C.A. von (1836) Index Sem. (St. Petersburg) 2: 52.
The Plant List 2013. Triphysaria in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 28.
Tropicos.org 2014. Triphysaria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 28.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Triphysaria. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 28 2014.

Vernacular names
English: Owl's Clovers

Triphysaria is a genus of five plants in the family Orobanchaceae which are known generally as owl's-clovers.[1] This genus is closely related to the genera Castilleja and Orthocarpus. Triphysaria are native to western North America, including a species endemic to California.


These plants, like those in many other genera in the family, are facultative hemiparasites on other plants. They produce haustoria that tap into the roots of other plants to extract some of the nutrients they need.

The plants bear spike inflorescences of pouched, folded flowers that have lips shaped like the beak of an owl.

Triphysaria eriantha - johnny-tuck, butter-and-eggs
Triphysaria floribunda - San Francisco owl's-clover [California endemic]
Triphysaria micrantha - purplebeak owl's-clover
Triphysaria pusilla - dwarf owl's-clover
Triphysaria versicolor - yellowbeak owl's-clover


"Triphysaria". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 December 2015.

External links

Jepson Manual Treatment: Triphysaria
zipcodezoo: Triphysaria

Further reading

Yoder, J. I. and D. S. Jamison. (2001). Heritable variation in quinone-induced haustorium development in the parasitic plant Triphysaria. Plant Physiology 125 1870
Torres M. J., Tomilov A. A., Tomilova N., Reagan R. L., Yoder J. I. 2005. Pscroph, a parasitic plant EST database enriched for parasite associated transcripts BMC Plant Biology 5:24 (16 November 2005)

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Biology Encyclopedia

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