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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Verbenaceae
Tribus: Casselieae – Citharexyleae – Duranteae – Lantaneae – Neospartoneae – Petreeae – Priveae – Verbeneae
Genera: AcantholippiaAloysiaBailloniaBoucheaCasseliaChascanumCitharexylumCoelocarpumDipyrenaDurantaGlandulariaHierobotanaJunelliaLampayoLantanaLippiaMulguraeaNashiaNeospartonParodianthusPetreaPhylaPitraeaPrivaRecordiaRehderaRhaphithamnusStachytarpheta – Tamonea – Verbena – Xolocotzia

Name

Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 245 (1805), nom. cons.

Type genus: Verbena L., Sp. Pl. 1: 18 (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Lantanaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 357 (1820).
Type genus: Lantana L. (1753) nom. cons.
Durantaceae J.Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 295 (1858).
Type genus: Duranta L. (1753)
Petreaceae J.Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 364 (1858).
Type genus: Petrea L. (1753)

References
Primary references

Saint-Hilaire, J.H.J. 1805. Exposition des Familles Naturelles 1: 245.

Additional references

Marx, H.E., O'Leary, N., Yuan, Y.W., Lu-Irving, P., Tank, D.C., Múlgura de Romero, M.E. & Olmstead, R.G. 2010. A molecular phylogeny and classification of Verbenaceae. American Journal of Botany 97(10): 1647–1663. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000144 Open accessReference page.
Olmstead, R.G. (ed.) 2016. A Synoptical Classification of the Lamiales. Version 2.6.2 (in prog.). 20 pp. (PDF) Reference page. Accessed 29 Oct. 2014.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Verbenaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 12. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Verbenaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 9.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Verbenaceae. Published online. Accessed: 9 June 2014.

Vernacular names
العربية: فربينية
asturianu: Verbenacees
azərbaycanca: Minaçiçəyikimilər
беларуская: Вербенавыя
български: Върбинкови
català: Verbenàcia
čeština: sporýšovité
dansk: Jernurt-familien
Deutsch: Eisenkrautgewächse
English: Verbena family
Esperanto: Verbenacoj
español: Verbenáceas
eesti: Raudürdilised
euskara: Verbenaceae
فارسی: شاه‌پسندیان
suomi: Verbenakasvit, rautayrttikasvit
français: Verbénacées
עברית: ורבניים
हिन्दी: वर्बेनेसी
hornjoserbsce: Twjerdźenkowe rostliny
magyar: Vasfűfélék
հայերեն: Աղավնիճազգիներ
italiano: Verbenacee
日本語: クマツヅラ科
ქართული: ცოცხანასებრნი
қазақша: Вербеналықтар
перем коми: Вербена котыр
한국어: 마편초과
коми: Вербена котыр
lietuvių: Verbeniniai
മലയാളം: വെർബനേസി
Nederlands: IJzerhardfamilie
norsk: Jernurtfamilien
polski: Werbenowate
русский: Вербеновые
slovenčina: železníkovité
svenska: Verbenaväxter
తెలుగు: వెర్బినేసి
ไทย: วงศ์ผกากรอง
Türkçe: Mine çiçeğigiller
українська: Вербенові
Tiếng Việt: Họ Cỏ roi ngựa
中文: 马鞭草科

The Verbenaceae (/ˌvɜːrbɪˈneɪsiaɪ, -iː/ VUR-bin-AY-see-e(y)e) — the verbena family or vervain family — are a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.[2]

The family Verbenaceae includes 32 genera and 800 species.[3] Phylogenetic studies[4] have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae[5] or in its own family, Avicenniaceae,[6] has been placed in the Acanthaceae.[7]

Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), grown for aroma or flavoring
Verbenas or vervains (Verbena), some used in herbalism, others grown in gardens

Taxonomy
Golden dew drops (Duranta erecta)
Frog fruit (Phyla nodiflora)
Glandularia pulchella in Kerala

Tribes and genera in the family[8] and their estimated species numbers:[3]

Casselieae (Schauer) Tronc.

Casselia Nees & Mart. - 6 species
Parodianthus Tronc. - 2 species
Tamonea Aubl. - 6 species

Citharexyleae Briq.

Citharexylum L. (fiddlewoods) - 60 species
Rehdera Moldenke - 3 species

Duranteae Bent.

Bouchea Cham. - 13 species
Chascanum E.Mey - 27 species
Duranta L. - 31 species
Recordia Moldenke - 2 species
Stachytarpheta Vahl - 120 species

Lantaneae Endl.

Aloysia Palau (beebrushes) - 36 species
Burroughsia Moldenke - 2 species
Coelocarpum Balf.f. - 6 species
Diphyllocalyx (Griseb.) Greuter & R.Rankin - 6 species
Isidroa Greuter & R.Rankin - 1 species
Lantana L. (shrub verbenas, lantanas) - 100 species
Lippia L. - 140 species
Nashia Millsp. - 1 species
Phyla Lour. (fogfruits) - 5 species

Neospartoneae Olmstead & N.O'Leary

Diostea Miers - 1 species
Lampayo Phil. ex Murillo - 3 species
Neosparton Griseb. - 3 species

Petreeae Briq.

Petrea L. (sandpaper vines) - 12 species

Priveae Briq.

Pitraea Turcz. - 1 species
Priva Adans. - 20 species

Verbeneae Dumort.

Glandularia J.F.Gmel. - 88 species
Hierobotana Briq. - 1 species
Junellia Moldenke - 38 species
Mulguraea N.O’Leary & P.Peralta - 11 species
Verbena L. (verbenas/vervains) - 57 species

Unassigned

Dipyrena Hook. - 1 species
Rhaphithamnus Miers - 2 species

Excluded genera

Various genera formerly included in the family Verbenaceae are now treated under other families:[9]

Moved to Acanthaceae

Avicennia L.

Moved to Lamiaceae

Amasonia L.f.
Brachysola (F.Muell.) Rye
Callicarpa L.
Caryopteris Bunge
Chloanthes R.Br.
Clerodendrum L.
Congea Roxb.
Cornutia L.
Cyanostegia Turcz.
Dicrastylis J.Drumm. ex Harv.
Discretitheca P.D.Cantino
Faradaya F.Muell.
Garrettia H.R.Fletcher
Glossocarya Wall. ex Griff.
Gmelina L.
Hemiphora (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
Holmskioldia Retz.
Hosea Ridl.
Hymenopyramis Wall. ex Griff.
Kalaharia Baill.
Karomia Dop
Lachnostachys Hook.
Mallophora Endl.
Monochilus Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Newcastelia F.Muell.
Oncinocalyx F.Muell.
Oxera Labill.
Peronema Jack
Petitia Jacq.
Petraeovitex Oliv.
Physopsis Turcz.
Pityrodia R.Br.
Premna L.
Pseudocarpidium Millsp.
Pseudocaryopteris P.D.Cantino
Rotheca Raf.
Schnabelia Hand.-Mazz.
Spartothamnella Briq.
Sphenodesme Jack
Symphorema Roxb.
Tectona L.f.
Teijsmanniodendron Koord.
Teucridium Hook.f.
Tripora P.D.Cantino
Vitex L.

Moved to Oleaceae

Dimetra Kerr
Nyctanthes L.

Moved to Orobanchaceae

Asepalum Marais
Cyclocheilon Oliv.
Nesogenes A.DC.

Moved to Phrymaceae

Phryma L.

Moved to Stilbaceae

Campylostachys Kunth
Euthystachys A.DC.
Stilbe P.J.Bergius
Thesmophora Rourke

References

"Family: Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
Stevens, P. F. (July 12, 2012). "Verbenaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
Cardoso PH, O'Leary N, Olmstead RG, Moroni P, Thode VA (2021). "An update of the Verbenaceae genera and species number". Plant Ecology and Evolution. 154 (1): 80–86. doi:10.5091/plecevo.2021.1821.
Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In Harley, R.M. & Reynolds, T. (eds) Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages. 1. Elsevier. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5.
Nelson, Gil (1994). The Trees of Florida: a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3.
"Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Lamiales". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
Marx H, O’Leary N, Yuan Y, Lu-Irving P, Tank DC, Múlgura ME, Olmstead, RG (2010). "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Verbenaceae". American Journal of Botany. 97 (10): 1647–1663. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000144.
"GRIN genera sometimes placed in Verbenaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2011-10-10.

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