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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Ordo: Magnoliales

Familia: Myristicaceae
Genus: Virola
Species: V. aequatorialis – V. albidiflora – V. bicuhyba – V. caducifolia – V. calophylla – V. calophylloidea – V. carinata – V. coelhoi – V. crebrinervia – V. decorticans – V. dixonii – V. duckei – V. elongata – V. flexuosa – V. gardneri – V. guatemalensis – V. guggenheimii – V. koschnyi – V. kwatae – V. loretensis – V. macrocarpa – V. malmei – V. marlenei – V. megacarpa – V. michelii – V. minutiflora – V. mollissima – V. multicostata – V. multiflora – V. multinervia – V. obovata – V. officinalis – V. parvifolia – V. pavonis – V. peruviana – V. polyneura – V. reidii – V. rugulosa – V. schultesii – V. sebifera – V. sessilis – V. steyermarkii – V. subsessilis – V. surinamensis – V. urbaniana – V. venosa – V. weberbaueri
Name

Virola Aubl. Hist. Pl. Guiane 904. (1775)

Type species: Virola sebifera Aubl. Hist. Pl. Guiane 904. (1775)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Bicuiba W.J.de Wilde (1992) not accepted by all authorities

References

Aublet, J.B.C.F. 1775. Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/361658#page/285 904].
International Plant Names Index. 2016. Virola. Published online. Accessed: Sept. 2 2016.
The Plant List 2013. Virola in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Sept. 2.
Tropicos.org 2016. Virola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Sept. 2.
Tropicos.org: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia): Virola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 4 Sept. 2016.
Tropicos.org: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: Virola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 4 Sept. 2016.
Tropicos.org: Peru Checklist: Virola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 4 Sept. 2016.
Tropicos.org: Bolivia Catalogue: Virola. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 4 Sept. 2016.
Virola in Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Accessed: 4 Sept. 2016.

Vernacular names
suomi: Virolat

Virola is a genus of medium-sized trees native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg. Species are known commonly as epená, patricá, or cumala. They have glossy, dark green leaves and clusters of tiny yellow flowers, and may emit a pungent odor.

Traditional use

Several species of this genus have been used to create hallucinogenic snuff powders.[1]
Chemical constituents

The tops of Virola oleifera have been shown to produce lignan-7-ols and verrucosin that have antifungal action regarding Cladosporium sphaerospermum in doses as low as 25 micrograms. Lignan-7-ols oleiferin-B and oleiferin-G worked for Cladosporium cladosporioides starting as low as 10 micrograms.[2]
Species

About 76 species, including:[3]

Virola aequatorialis
Virola albidiflora
Virola araujovii
Virola atopa
Virola bicuhyba
Virola boliviensis
Virola brachycarpa
Virola caducifolia
Virola calophylla (Spruce) Warb.,[4]
Virola calophylloidea
Virola carinata
Virola coelhoi
Virola crebrinervia
Virola cuspidata
Virola decorticans
Virola divergens
Virola dixonii
Virola duckei
Virola elliptica
Virola elongata (syn. V. theiodora)
Virola flexuosa
Virola gardneri
Virola glaziovii
Virola glycycarpa
Virola guatemalensis
Virola guggnheimii
Virola incolor
Virola koschnyi
Virola kukachkana
Virola kwatae
Virola laevigata
Virola lepidota
Virola lieneana
Virola lorentensia (or V. loretensis)
Virola macrantha
Virola macrocarpa A.C. Sm.,[5]
Virola malmei
Virola marlenei
Virola megacarpa A.H. Gentry[6]
Virola melinonii
Virola merendonis
Virola michelii Heckel,[7]
Virola micrantha
Virola minutiflora
Virola mocoa
Virola mollissima
Virola multicostata Ducke[8]
Virola multiflora (Standl. ) A. C. Sm.,[9]
Virola multinervia
Virola mycetis
Virola nobilis
Virola obovata
Virola officinalis
Virola oleifera
Virola panamensis
Virola papillosa
Virola parvifolia
Virola pavonis
Virola peruviana
Virola polyneura
Virola reidii
Virola rufula
Virola rugulosa
Virola schultesii
Virola schwackei
Virola sebifera
Virola sessilis
Virola steyermarkii
Virola subsessilis
Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex Rottb. ) Warb.,[10]
Virola theiodora
Virola urbaniana
Virola venezuelensis
Virola venosa (Benth.) Warb.[11]
Virola villosa
Virola warburgli
Virola weberbaueri

Legal status
United States
Louisiana

Except for ornamental purposes, growing, selling or possessing Virola spp. is prohibited by Louisiana State Act 159.
See also

Myristica — some species of this genus have been reclassified into Virola.
Ayahuasca
Entheogen
Psychedelic plants

References
Notes

Torres, C. M., et al. (1991). "Snuff powders from pre-Hispanic San Pedro de Atacama: Chemical and contextual analysis". Current Anthropology, 640–649.
Sartorelli, P.; Young, M.C.M.; Kato, M.J., "Antifungal lignans from the arils of Virola oleifera". Phytochemistry-Oxford. Oxford : Elsevier Science Ltd. March 1998. v. 47 (6) p. 1003–1006.
"Genus Species list for John's species database". www3.isrl.uiuc.edu. Archived from the original on 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
"Virola calophylla". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-04-29.
"Virola macrocarpa A.C. Sm". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
"Virola megacarpa A.H. Gentry". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
"Virola michelii Heckel". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
"Virola multicostata Ducke". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
"Discover Life - Myristicaceae: Virola multiflora (Standl. ) A. C. Sm. - Fruta dorada". Discover Life. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
"Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.

"Virola venosa (Benth.) Warb". mobot.mobot.org. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-03.

General references

Jonathan Ott – Shamanic Snuffs or Entheogenic Errhines (2001) ISBN 1-888755-02-4
Richard Evans Schultes – Plants of the Gods (1992) ISBN 0-89281-979-0
Erowid Virola Vault

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