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Xanthosoma sagittifolium

Xanthosoma sagittifolium , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Aroideae
Tribus: Caladieae
Genus: Xanthosoma
Species: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Name

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, 1832.
Synonyms

Basionym
Arum sagittifolium L., Sp. Pl.: 966. 1753.

Homotypic
Caladium sagittifolium (L.) Vent., Descr. Pl. Nov.: t. 30. 1801.

Heterotypic
Alocasia talihan Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 1: 185. 1922.
Arum nigrum Vell., Fl. Flumin. 9: 386, t. 107. 1831 publ. 1881, nom. illeg.
Arum xanthorrhizon Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 2: 32. 1797.
Caladium edule G.Mey., Prim. Fl. Esseq.: 272. 1818.
Caladium mafaffa Engl. in DC. & A.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 471. 1879.
Caladium utile Engl. in DC. & A.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 469. 1879.
Caladium xanthorrhizon (Jacq.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 490. 1805.
Philodendron nigrum Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3: 52. 1841, nom. nud.
Xanthosoma appendiculatum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 417. 1854.
Xanthosoma atrovirens K.Koch & C.D.Bouché, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 3. 1855.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. appendiculatum (Schott) Engl. in DC. & A.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 476. 1879.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. hybridum K.Koch, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 3. 1855.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. kochii Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23E: 50. 1920.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. moritzii Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23E: 51. 1920.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. panduriforme Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23E: 51. 1920.
Xanthosoma atrovirens var. versicolor K.Koch, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 3. 1855.
Xanthosoma blandum Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 10: 346. 1862.
Xanthosoma edule (G.Mey.) Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot.: 19. 1832.
Xanthosoma ianthinum K.Koch & C.D.Bouché, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 2. 1855.
Xanthosoma jacquinii Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot.: 19. 1832.
Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott, Arac. Betreff. 2: 5. 1855.
Xanthosoma mafaffa var. blandum (Schott) Engl. in Mart. & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(2): 193. 1878.
Xanthosoma mafaffa var. typicum Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23E: 51. 1920, nom. inval.
Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld, Tribuna Farm. 12: 201. 1944.
Xanthosoma peregrinum Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I.: 511. 1864.
Xanthosoma poeppigii var. mafaffa (Schott) J.F.Macbr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 11: 8. 1931.
Xanthosoma roseum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 178. 1858.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium K.Koch, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 2. 1855, nom. illeg.
Xanthosoma utile K.Koch & C.D.Bouché, Index Seminum (B) 1854(App.): 2. 1855.
Xanthosoma violaceum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 370. 1853.
Xanthosoma xantharrhizon (Jacq.) K.Koch, Bonplandia (Hannover) 4: 4. 1856.

Homonyms

Xanthosoma sagittifolium Liebm., nom. illeg. = Xanthosoma undipes (K.Koch & C.D.Bouché) K.Koch

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Southern America
Costa Rica to S. Trop. America

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Schott, H.W. in Schott, H.W. & Endlicher, S.L. 1832. Melet. Bot. 19.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Xanthosoma sagittifolium in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 02. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 02 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Xanthosoma sagittifolium in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 02.
Tropicos.org 2018. Xanthosoma sagittifolium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 02.

Vernacular names
English: arrowleaf elephant ear, arrowleaf elephant's ear
Nederlands: pomtajer, tajerblad, tajerknol

Xanthosoma sagittifolium, the arrowleaf elephant ear, arrowleaf elephant's ear, malanga or American taro,[3] is a species of tropical flowering plant in the genus Xanthosoma, which produces an edible, starchy corm. Cultivars with purple stems or leaves are also variously called blue taro, purple taro, purplestem tannia, and purple elephant's ear among others.[4] Taro is a different species that belongs to the genus Colocasia.[5]
Uses

In Bolivia, it is called walusa, in Colombia bore, in Costa Rica tiquizque or macal, in Cuba malanga, in Mexico mafafa, in Nicaragua quequisque, in Panama otoe and ocumo in Venezuela. In Brazil, the leaves are sold as taioba. The tuber (called nampi or malanga) is also used in the cuisine of these countries. The plant is often interplanted within reforestation areas to control weeds and provide shade during the early stages of growth.

In Puerto Rican cuisine and Dominican cuisine, the plant and its corm are called yautía. In Puerto Rican pasteles, yautía is ground with squash, potato, green bananas and plantains into a dough-like fluid paste containing pork and ham, and boiled in a banana leaf or paper wrapper. The yautía corm is used in stews, soups, or simply served boiled much like a potato. It is used in local dishes such as guanime, alcapurrias, sancocho, and mondongo. In alcapurrias, it is also ground with green bananas and made into fried croquettes containing picadillo or sea food. Yautía majada is also prepared and consumed when mashed in some instances. Yauíta puree is usually served with fish or shell fish cooked in coconut milk.

In Suriname and the Netherlands, the plant is called tayer. The shredded root is baked with chicken, fruit juices, salted meat, and spices in the popular Surinamese dish, pom. Eaten over rice or on bread, pom is commonly eaten in Suriname at family gatherings and on special occasions, and is also popular throughout the Netherlands. In Surinamese cuisine the leaves are also often baked with a Maggi-cube (chicken boullion cube) and eaten alongside rice and chicken or salted beef.

References

"Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott". The Plant List. 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
"Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott". Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
Lim, T. K. (2015). "Xanthosoma sagittifolium". Edible Medicinal and non Medicinal Plants. pp. 498–509. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9511-1_15. ISBN 978-94-017-9510-4.
"Xanthosoma violaceum". Tropical Britain. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
"WHAT IS MALANGA? HEALTH BENEFITS, NUTRITION & MORE". Abasto. Retrieved 19 March 2021.

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