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Yucca baccata var. baccata

Yucca baccata var. baccata, (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Agavoideae
Genus: Yucca
Sectio: Y. sect. Yucca
Serie: Y. ser. Baccatae
Species: Yucca baccata
Varietas: Y. b. var. baccata – Y. b. var. brevifolia

Name

Yucca baccata Torr. in W.H.Emory, 1859.
Synonyms

Homotypic

Yucca baccata f. genuina Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3: 44. 1873, nom. inval.
Sarcoyucca baccata (Torr.) Linding., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 50(1): 446. 1933.

References

Torrey, H.B. in Emory, W.H., 1859. Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound. 2(1): 221.
Govaerts, R. & al. 2006. World Checklist of selected plant families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2010 Jan 07[1]

The International Plant Names Index (2009). Published on the Internet. 2010 Jan 07 [2].

Vernacular names
English: banana yucca, wild date
magyar: Bogyós pálmaliliom, bogyós jukka

Yucca baccata (datil yucca or banana yucca, also known as Spanish bayonet and broadleaf yucca)[4][5] is a common species of yucca native to the deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, from southeastern California north to Utah, east to western Texas and south to Sonora and Chihuahua. It is also reported in the wild in Colombia.[6]

The species gets its common name "banana yucca" from its banana-shaped fruit. The specific epithet baccata means 'with berries'. Banana yucca is closely related to the Yucca schidigera, the Mojave yucca, with which it is interspersed where their ranges overlap; hybrids between them occur.

Description

Yucca baccata is recognized by having leaves 50–76 cm (20–30 in) long[4] with a blue-green color, and short or nonexistent trunks. It flowers in the spring, starting in April to July depending on locality (altitude), and the flowers range from 5 to 13 cm long, white to cream with purple shades. The flower stalk is not especially tall, typically 1–1.5 meters. The seeds are rough, black, wingless, 3–8 mm long and wide, 1–2 mm thick; they ripen in 6–8 weeks. The indehiscent fleshy fruit is 8–18 cm long and 6 cm across, cylindrical, and tastes similar to sweet potato.[7]

It is a larval host to the ursine giant skipper, yucca giant skipper, and various yucca moths (Proxodus sp.).[8] After feeding, the skippers pupate in the yucca's roots.[8]
Subspecies

Yucca baccata has been divided into three subspecies:

Yucca baccata subsp. baccata—Datil Yucca, Banana Yucca
Yucca baccata subsp. thornberi (McKelvey) Hochstätter—Thornber's Yucca
Yucca baccata subsp. vespertina (McKelvey) Hochstätter—Mohave Datil Yucca

Distribution

The plant is known from the Great Basin, the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts, plus the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains ecoregion and lower, southern parts of the Rocky Mountains. It occurs primarily in the states of Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, and the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. It can be found in several habitat types including Pinyon-Juniper, desert grassland, Creosote bush scrub, Sagebrush, and Ponderosa pine colonies at elevations generally between 1,500 and 2,500 meters.

It is associated with Yucca schidigera, Yucca brevifolia, Yucca arizonica, Yucca faxoniana, Agave utahensis, and other Agave species. It can be found among Sclerocactus, Pediocactus, Navajoa, and Toumeya species.

Yucca baccata occurs in a large area of the North American deserts and exhibits much variation across its range. Yucca baccata specimens from the higher, mountainous regions of the Rocky Mountains is winterhardy and tolerates extreme conditions.
Uses

The Paiutes dried the fruits for use during the winter. It is still a popular food amongst Mexican Indians.[7]

The young flower stalks can be cooked and eaten, with the tough outer rind discarded. The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked.[4]

Ancestral Puebloan peoples used the fibers derived from the leaves to create sandals and cordage, and the root was used as soap, although with less frequency than that of Yucca elata.[9]
References

Hodgson, W.; Salywon, A.; Puente, R. (2020). "Yucca baccata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound., Bot [Emory] 221. 1859 "Plant Name Details for Yucca baccata". IPNI. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
The Plant List
Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.
"Broadleaf Yucca | Colorado's Wildflowers". 2016-06-22. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Whitney, Stephen (1985). Western Forests (The Audubon Society Nature Guides). New York: Knopf. p. 438. ISBN 0-394-73127-1.
The Xerces Society (2016), Gardening for Butterflies: How You Can Attract and Protect Beautiful, Beneficial Insects, Timber Press.

(Organization), Archaeology Southwest (1999). Archaeology Southwest magazine : a quarterly publication of Archaeology Southwest. Archaeology Southwest. OCLC 803078100.

Further reading

Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 1 Dehiscent-fruited species in the Southwest and Midwest of the USA, Canada and Baja California , Selbst Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-00-005946-6
Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 2 Indehiscent-fruited species in the Southwest, Midwest and East of the USA, Selbst Verlag. 2002. ISBN 3-00-009008-8
Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 3 Mexico , Selbst Verlag, 2004. ISBN 3-00-013124-8
Common names of yucca species
Die Gattung Yucca Fritz Hochstätter
Yucca I [1] Verbreitungskarte I Fritz Hochstätter
Flora of North America: Yucca baccata RangeMap
Jepson Flora Project: Yucca baccata

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