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Zantedeschia aethiopica

Zantedeschia aethiopica, Photo: Augusta Stylianou, Artist

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Aroideae
Tribus: Zantedeschieae
Genus: Zantedeschia
Species: Zantedeschia aethiopica
Name

Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 765. 1826.
Synonyms

Basionym
Calla aethiopica L., Sp. Pl. : 968. 1753.
Homotypic
Calla moschata Moench, Methodus: 346. 1794, nom. illeg.
Colocasia aethiopica (L.) Link, Diss. Bot.: 77. 1795.
Richardia aethiopica (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 765. 1826.
Otosma aethiopica (L.) Raf., New Fl. 2: 90. 1837.
Arodes aethiopicum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 740. 1891.
Heterotypic
Calla ambigua Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 262. 1796.
Richardia africana Kunth, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4: 433. 1818.
Calla aethiopica var. nana Hovey, Nursery Cat. (Hovey & co.) 1882: 22. 1882.
Pseudohomalomena pastoensis A.D.Hawkes, Madroño 11: 147. 1951.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe (all introduced)
Regional: Northern Europe
Great Britain
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Corse, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Sicilia, Yugoslavia.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa (all introduced)
Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.
Regional: Macaronesia (all introduced)
Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira.
Regional: South Tropical Africa (all introduced)
Mozambique, Zimbabwe.
Regional: Southern Africa
Cape Provinces, Lesotho, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Swaziland.
Regional: Middle Atlantic Ocean
St. Helena (introduced)
Regional: Western Indian Ocean
Réunion (introduced).
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Western Asia
East Aegean Islands (introduced)
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Malesia
Philippines (introduced).
Continental: Australasia (all introduced)
Regional: Australia
Norfolk Islands, New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia.
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand North.
Continental: Pacific
Regional: South-Central Pacific
Society Islands.
Regional: North-Central Pacific
Hawaii.
Continental: Northern America (all introduced)
Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
Oregon.
Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
California.
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Southwest.
Continental: Southern America (all introduced)
Regional: Central America
Costa Rica, Nicaragua.
Regional: Caribbean
Bermuda, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago.
Regional: Western South America
Ecuador.
Regional: Brazil
Brazil Northeast.
Continental: Antarctic
Regional: Subantarctic Islands
Tristan da Cunha (introduced).

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References

Sprengel, C. 1826. Caroli Linnaei, ... Systema vegetabilium. Ed. 16. Vol. III: Classis 16–23. 936 pp. Sumtibus Librariae Dieterichianae, Gottingae [Göttingen]. BHL Reference page. (!765)

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Zantedeschia aethiopica in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 09. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Zantedeschia aethiopica in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Feb 10. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Zantedeschia aethiopica. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 09 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Zantedeschia aethiopica in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 09.
Tropicos.org 2018. Zantedeschia aethiopica. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 09.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Witvarkoor
čeština: kornoutice africká
Deutsch: Gewöhnliche Calla, Zimmercalla
English: Common arum Lily
eesti: Harilik kalla
suomi: Valkohuonevehka
magyar: Fehér tölcsérvirág, fehér kála
italiano: calla
Nederlands: Witte aronskelk
Türkçe: Salon kalası
isiXhosa: intebe, inyibiba
isiZulu: ihlukwe

Zantedeschia aethiopica, commonly known as calla lily and arum lily, is a species of flowering plant in the family Araceae, native to southern Africa in Lesotho, South Africa, and Eswatini.[2]

Description
Inflorescence and spathe

Zantedeschia aethiopica is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant, evergreen where rainfall and temperatures are adequate, deciduous where there is a dry season. Its preferred habitat is in streams and ponds or on the banks. It grows to 0.6–1 m (2.0–3.3 ft) tall, with large clumps of broad, arrow shaped dark green leaves up to 45 cm (18 in) long. The inflorescences are large and are produced in spring, summer and autumn, with a pure white spathe up to 25 cm (9.8 in) and a yellow spadix up to 90 mm (3+1⁄2 in) long.[3] The spadix produces a faint, sweet fragrance.[4]

Zantedeschia aethiopica contains calcium oxalate, and ingestion of the raw plant may cause a severe burning sensation and swelling of lips, tongue, and throat; stomach pain and diarrhea may occur.[5][6]
Distribution and habitat

Z. aethiopica is native to southern Africa, specifically Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. It has naturalised in Kenya, Madeira, Azores, Malawi, New Zealand, Tanzania, Zambia, coastal California and Australia, particularly in Western Australia, where it has been classified as a toxic weed and pest.[7][8] The cultivar 'Green Goddess' is listed in the New Zealand National Pest Plant Accord, which proscribes its cultivation, sale, and distribution.
Cultivation and uses

A number of cultivars have been selected as ornamental plants:

'Crowborough' is a more cold tolerant cultivar growing to 90 cm (35 in) tall, suited to cool climates, such as Ireland or Britain and the north-western United States.
'Green Goddess' has green stripes on the spathes which allow the flowers to last much longer than the original white form. 'Green Goddess' also has a more opened and wider spathe and has the tendency to develop curvy fringes at the edge of the spathe than the original white form. The first generation hybrid of 'Green Goddess' and the original white form have a light green underside on the spathe, allowing the flower to last longer than the original white form, but no green stripes on the top side. The New Zealand National Pest Plant Accord proscribes the cultivation, sale, and distribution of 'Green Goddess'.
'Pink Mist' has a pinkish base to the spathe and pink spadix. 'Pink Mist' is not a hybrid, but a colour sport. The pink colour is best developed in partial shade after rain. 'Pink Mist' is quite delicate and weak compared to the original white form and 'Green Goddess'. Unlike the latter, 'Pink Mist' has a dormant period during winter, where the leaves almost die down completely, although it is pure Zantedeschia aethiopica. The seedlings of 'Pink Mist' are also weaker than the original white form or 'Green Goddess'.
'Red Desire' has a red instead of yellow spadix and appears to be very rare.
'White Sail', growing to 90 cm tall, has a very broad spathe.[3]

The cultivars 'Crowborough'[9] and 'Green Goddess'[10] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[11]

In order to introduce colours to the large white calla lilies, like the many colours available in the dwarf summer calla lilies, attempts have been made to hybridise Z. aethiopica with Z. elliotiana. These have resulted in albino progeny, which are non-viable.

Zantedeschia aethiopica can be used for treatment of wastewater due to its tolerance of iron and ability to grow in wet areas.[12]
Symbolism

Zantedeschia aethiopica is the national flower of the island nation of Saint Helena,[13] where it grows widely. Further, it is an important symbol of Irish republicanism and nationalism since 1926, because it is used to commemorate the dead of Easter 1916 and onward.
See also

List of plants known as lily

Gallery

Closed inflorescence

Emerging leaf growth

Seeds

References

Foden, W. (2010). "Zantedeschia aethiopica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T164507A5896429. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T164507A5896429.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
"Zantedeschia aethiopica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-18.
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
"Zantedeschia aethiopica". www.plantzafrica.com. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina Retrieved on 8-2-2009
"Zantedeschia aethiopica". www.pfaf.org. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
"Arum Lily". Weeds Australia Weed identification. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
"Arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)". Declared plant in Western Australia. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Dept Agriculture and Food, Western Australia
"Zantedeschia aethiopica 'Crowborough'". RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"Zantedeschia aethiopica 'Green Goddess'". RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 108. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
Casierra-Posada, Fánor; Blanke, Michael M.; Guerrero-Guío, Juan Carlos (June 2014). "Iron Tolerance in Calla Lilies (Zantedeschia aethiopica)". Gesunde Pflanzen. 66 (2): 63–68. doi:10.1007/s10343-014-0316-y. ISSN 0367-4223. S2CID 9473100.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.

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