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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Amaryllidoideae
Tribus: Hippeastreae
Subtribus: Hippeastrinae
Genus: Zephyranthes
Species: Z. advena – Z. alba – Z. albiella – Z. albolilacina – Z. amambaica – Z. americana – Z. amoena – Z. ananuca – Z. andalgalensis – Z. andina – Z. araguaiensis – Z. araucana – Z. arenicola – Z. atamasco – Z. aurata – Z. bagnoldii – Z. bahiensis – Z. bakeri – Z. barrosiana – Z. bella – Z. berteroana – Z. bifida – Z. bifolia – Z. blumenavia – Z. botumirimensis – Z. brachyandra – Z. brevipes – Z. breviscapa – Z. briquetii – Z. caaguazuensis – Z. caerulea – Z. calderensis – Z. candida – Z. capitata – Z. capivarina – Z. cardinalis – Z. carinata – Z. carminea – Z. cearensis – Z. chacoensis – Z. chlorosolen – Z. chrysantha – Z. ciceroana – Z. cisandina – Z. citrina – Z. clintiae – Z. colonum – Z. comunelloi – Z. concinna – Z. concolor – Z. consobrina – Z. contermina – Z. correntina – Z. crassibulba – Z. crociflora – Z. cubensis – Z. datensis – Z. depauperata – Z. dichromantha – Z. diluta – Z. drummondii – Z. duarteana – Z. elegans – Z. elwesii – Z. erubescens – Z. estensis – Z. filifolia – Z. flavissima – Z. fluvialis – Z. fosteri – Z. gameleirensis – Z. gilliesiana – Z. goiana – Z. graciliflora – Z. gracilis – Z. gratissima – Z. guachipensis – Z. guatemalensis – Z. hondurensis – Z. howardii – Z. immaculata – Z. insularum – Z. irwiniana – Z. ischihualasta – Z. ita-andivi – Z. itaobina – Z. jamesonii – Z. jonesii – Z. jujuyensis – Z. katheriniae – Z. laeta – Z. lagesiana – Z. lagopaivae – Z. latissimifolia – Z. lehmilleri – Z. leonensis – Z. leptandra – Z. leucantha – Z. lindleyana – Z. lineata – Z. longifolia – Z. longipes – Z. longistyla – Z. longituba – Z. lucida – Z. macrosiphon – Z. maculata – Z. magnoi – Z. martinezii – Z. mataca – Z. matogrossensis – Z. medinae – Z. mesochloa – Z. mexicana – Z. microcarpa – Z. microstigma – Z. millarensis – Z. minima – Z. minor – Z. minuta – Z. miradorensis – Z. moctezumae – Z. modesta – Z. moelleri – Z. monantha – Z. montana – Z. morrisclintii – Z. nelsonii – Z. nervosa – Z. neumannii – Z. nymphaea – Z. oranensis – Z. orellanae – Z. pantanalensis – Z. paranaensis – Z. pedunculosa – Z. philadelphica – Z. phycelloides – Z. picta – Z. plumieri – Z. popetana – Z. primulina – Z. proctorii – Z. pseudoconcolor – Z. puertoricensis – Z. pulchella – Z. purpurea – Z. purpurella – Z. refugiensis – Z. reginae – Z. riojana – Z. robusta – Z. rosalensis – Z. rosea – Z. rubra – Z. ruizlealii – Z. saipinensis – Z. salinarum – Z. saltensis – Z. sanavirone – Z. schulziana – Z. sessilis – Z. simpsonii – Z. smallii – Z. solisii – Z. spectabilis – Z. sprekeliopsis – Z. splendens – Z. stellaris – Z. stellatorosea – Z. steyermarkii – Z. subflava – Z. susatana – Z. sylvatica – Z. tenuiflora – Z. tepicensis – Z. traubii – Z. treatiae – Z. tubispatha – Z. tucumanensis – Z. uruguaianica – Z. venturiana – Z. versicolor – Z. vittata – Z. wrightii – Z. yaviensis – Z. zapotecana

Nothospecies: Z. × adonis – Z. × ajax – Z. × flaggii – Z. flammea – Z. × floryi – Z. × ruthiae – Z. × spofforthiana

Note: All unplaced names, likely most are artificial hybrids.
Name

Zephyranthes Herb., Appendix 36. (1821) nom. cons. prop.

Type species: Zephyranthes atamasco (L.) Herb., Appendix: 36. (1821)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Atamosco Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 57. 1763, nom. rej.
Atamasco Raf., Neogenyton: 3. 1825, orth. var.
Aidema Ravenna, Onira 8: 2. 2003.
Argyropsis M.Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 4: 125. 1847, nom. illeg.
Type species: A. candida (Lindl.) M.Roem.
Arviela Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 135. 1866.
Type species: A. tubispatha Salisb.
× Cooperanthes S.P.Lancaster, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 38: 531. 1913.
Type species: non design.
Cooperia Herb., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 22: t. 1835. 1836.
Type species: C. drummondii Herb.
Haylockia Herb., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 16: t. 1371. 1830.
Type species: H. pusilla Herb.
Mesochloa Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 11. 1838.
Type species: M. canaliculata Raf.
Plectronema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 10. 1838.
Type species: P. candida (Lindl.) Raf.
Pogonema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 10. 1838.
Type species: P. carinata (Herb.) Raf.
Sceptranthes Graham, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 413. 1836.
Type species: S. drummondii (D.Don) Graham
Habranthus Herb., Bot. Mag. 51: t. 2464 (1824) pro parte taxon page remains for a small number of species still to be re-assigned.
Myostemma Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 135 (1866)
Zephyranthella (Pax) Pax in H.G.A.Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a: 416 (1930)
Famatina Ravenna, Pl. Life 28: 56 (1972)
Eithea Ravenna, Bot. Australis 1: 2 (2002)
Bathya Ravenna, Bot. Australis 2: 11 (2003)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Northern America
North-Central U.S.A.
Kansas, Oklahoma.
South-Central U.S.A.
Texas.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia.
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
Caribbean
Bahamas, ber Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Turks-Caicos Islands, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Islands.
Northern South America
Suriname, Venezuela.
Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.
Brazil
Brazil West-Central, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil North, Brazil South.
Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Argentina Northwest, Chile Central, Paraguay, Uruguay.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Herbert, W. 1821. An Appendix: [General index to the Botanical magazine, vol. 43-48 containing a treatise on bulbous roots] By William Herbert with plates. London, 36.

Additional references

García, N., Meerow, A.W., Soltis, D.E. & Soltis, P.S. 2014. Testing deep reticulate evolution in Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae (Asparagales) with ITS and chloroplast sequence data. Systematic Botany 39(1): 75–89. DOI: 10.1600/036364414X678099 Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
García, N., Meerow, A.W., Arroyo‐Leuenberger, S., Oliveira, R.S., Dutilh, J.H.A., Soltis, P.S. & Judd, W.S. 2019. Generic classification of Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae. Taxon 68(3): 481–498. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12062 Paywall PDF Reference page.
García, N. & Meerow, A.W. 2020. Corrigendum to: García & al., Generic classification of Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae [in Taxon 68: 481–498. 2019] Taxon 69(1): 208–209. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12208 Open access Reference page.
Meerow, A.W., Guy, C.L., Li, Q.-B., & Yang, S.L. 2000. Phylogeny of the American Amaryllidaceae based on nrDNA ITS sequences. Systematic Botany 25(4): 708–726. DOI: 10.2307/2666729 BioOne ResearchGate Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Zephyranthes in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Oct. 1. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Zephyranthes. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 1 2018.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Zephyranthes Herb. in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 2014-09-01.
Zephyranthes Herb. – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Zephyranthes – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
EOL: Zephyranthes
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Zephyranthes in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2013 Jan 20.

Vernacular names

বাংলা: ঘাসফুল}}
Deutsch: Zephirblumen
English: Zephyrlily
suomi: Heinäliljat
日本語: ゼフィランサス
lietuvių: Zefyrantas
polski: Zefirant
русский: Зефирантес
svenska: Sefyrliljesläktet
中文: 玉帘属

Zephyranthes /ˌzɛfɪˈrænθiːz/[3] is a genus of temperate and tropical plants in the Amaryllis family, subfamily Amaryllidoideae,[4] native to the Western Hemisphere and widely cultivated as ornamentals. There are over 70 recognized species,[5] as well as numerous hybrids and cultivars. Common names for species in this genus include fairy lily, rainflower, zephyr lily, magic lily, Atamasco lily, and rain lily.

The name is derived from Ζέφυρος (Zephyrus), the Greek god of the west wind, and ἄνθος (anthos), meaning flower, referring to the slender stalks.[6]

Taxonomy

According to Meerow et al., cladistics suggests that the genus is native to the Americas. Several species have become naturalized (sometimes unintentionally) in other places like Hawaii, Indonesia, and Thailand. The species that are native to the higher altitudes in Mexico (e.g., Z. lindleyana, Central America (Costa Rica, e.g., Z. carinata) and parts of North America (e.g., Z. longifolia) or Argentina (e.g., Z. candida) represent the species having the greatest potential for cold hardiness.
Biology

These perennial bulbs (geophytes) tolerate many ecological niches (periodically wet soil to desert conditions), and have many ornamental characteristics. Many parts of the plant including the leaves and bulbs are considered to be toxic. The genus has been evaluated for possible medicinal properties, and the biochemically toxic compounds are classed as alkaloids.[7]
Traditional uses

Parts of Zephyranthes, such as bulbs and leaves, are used in traditional medicine. In Peru, Z. andina (syn. Z. parvula) was used for tumors. In China, Z. rosea was used for breast cancer and in Africa the leaves of Z. candida were used for diabetes mellitus. It was used for simple problems from head ache, cough, cold, and boils to very complicated diseases such as breast cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, tumors.[8]
Morphology

Species in the genus which are listed in this article vary in morphology. Along with floral morphology, characteristics such as bulb size, bulb tunic color, and leaf morphology help identify individual species.

Foliage in the wild is often ephemeral, but under cultivation becomes more persistent. Leaf color ranges from the bright grassy green of Z. candida (shown in the photo) to rather broad glaucous colored foliage such as found in Z. drummondii. A few of the species have distinct bronze tints in the foliage when grown in bright light. Size of leaves in these species, ranges from dark green and tiny grassy leaves in species like Z. jonesi or Z. longifolia, to broader, glaucous leaves in species like Z. drummondii. Perhaps largest leaves of all is found on Z. lindleyana from Mexico, usually distributed as a cultivar called 'Horsetail Falls,' this species has handsome broad leaves almost like a Hippeastrum.
Flowers

Flower color in the species ranges from white to yellow (various tints of this color from lemon to sulfur) and pink. Zephyranthes have erect flower stalks which support a flower that may be upward facing or slightly nodding. The funnel-shaped, flowers with six petals can be crocus shaped, but may also open flat such as in Z. jonesii or even reflex slightly.

The flowers of some species have a sweet, pleasant fragrance. Fragrance appears to be recessive in crosses, but there are a few species or hybrids, Z. drummondii (white), Z. morrisclintae (pink) and Z. jonesii (light yellow), that all carry the trait. At least two of these open their flowers at night and are attractive to nocturnal insects. The flowers typically last only for a day or two; but new flowers may appear in a succession of blooms, especially during humid or rainy weather.

Various members of the genus may bloom spring only or repeat and continue into autumn, often a few days after rainstorms thus one of the common names, rain lilies. Periods of synchronous bloom, which breeders have dubbed "blitzes", are part of their ornamental value, but also times breeders exploit for the purpose of producing new hybrids.[9]

Most species under cultivation will bloom without the naturally imposed drought and wet that occurs in nature. Greenhouse grown plants bloom very freely but cycle through periods of bloom. One of the longest blooming of all the species is Z. primulina which blooms from April until October. Although it is apomictic, it is a choice parent for crosses because of its rapid repeat flowering trait and long bloom season. Some other species such as Z. morrisclintae appear to bloom only in the spring season. Most of these species are easily propagated vegetatively via offsets or twin scaling. A few of them such as Z. clintae are slow to produce increase.

Unusual phenotypes can be preserved vegetatively. Sexual reproduction is via seed. The apomictic species freely set seed and faithfully reproduce the maternal phenotype.
Cultivation

Currently these plants are commonly cultivated in USDA hardiness zones 7–10. Rain lily breeders may develop cultivars with greater cold hardness.

Generally rain lilies are sold in nurseries already potted up. This is of benefit since the growth cycle is not interrupted. Rarely (and not ideally), dried bulbs are marketed. Such dried bulbs usually become established after one to two growing seasons and will regain bloom vigor.

Although many of the common names include "lily", these plants are actually in the Amaryllis family. Elizabeth Lawrence, in her classic A Southern Garden (1942), writes with enthusiasm about pink rain lily, Zephyranthes grandiflora (=Zephyranthes carinata):

It is one of the hardiest species and is said to winter safely in Philadelphia. As a child I thought of the little rose-colored lilies as the sign and seal of summer. My grandmother in Georgia grew them in her garden, and my grandmother in West Virginia grew them in little pots on the front porch.

Those in my garden [in Raleigh] came from Georgia. They have been with me so long and have increased so much that their bloom makes a sea of pink. The season is in June but there is scattered bloom in the late summer and even to the end of September. The flowers are large, to over three inches [75 mm] long, on ten-inch [250 mm] stems. They open out flat at midday and close in the afternoon; this is a characteristic of the genus. The shimmering leaves are grass green.

Breeding

Breeding with these species has some inherent difficulties summarized by Roy Chowdhury (2006) as ranging from pseudogamy and apomixis, differences in chromosome number and varying times of flowering. In spite of these drawbacks breeding work is being done to enhance the value of the plants as ornamentals. Because of the nature of botanical restriction, breeding programs often encounter impediments. Reciprocal crosses may be difficult because the apomictic parent cannot be used as female parents. However interspecific crosses are well documented.[10] There are tri-hybrids and quad-hybrids being produced (crossing 3 or 4 distinct species). Such work indicates that complex hybrids should be possible. One constraint remains that seedlings may still carry the apomictic trait, and it is necessary to have progeny from a test cross to determine this.
Species

The list of species below is taken from the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of September 2011,[2] unless otherwise noted. Only some selected synonyms are given.

Zephyranthes albiella Traub
Zephyranthes albolilacinus Cárdenas
Zephyranthes americana (Hoffmanns.) Ravenna
Zephyranthes amoena Ravenna
Zephyranthes andina (R.E.Fr.) Traub
Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herb. – Atamasco lily, wild Easter lily (Florida, USA),[11] type species
Zephyranthes bella T.M.Howard & S.Ogden
Zephyranthes bifolia (Aubl.) M.Roem.
Zephyranthes brevipes Standl.
Zephyranthes breviscapa Ravenna
Zephyranthes briquetii J.F.Macbr.
Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb. (Argentina)
Zephyranthes capivarina Ravenna
Zephyranthes cardinalis C.H.Wright
Zephyranthes carinata Herb.
Zephyranthes cearensis (Herb.) Baker' (Ceará, Brazil)
Zephyranthes challensis Ravenna = Zephyranthes andina (R.E.Fr.) Traub
Zephyranthes chlorosolen (Herb.) D.Dietr. (US)
Zephyranthes chrysantha Greenm. & C.H.Thomps.
Zephyranthes ciceroana M.M.Mejía & R.García
Zephyranthes citrina Baker (Mexico), syn. Z. sulphurea
Zephyranthes clintiae Traub
Zephyranthes concolor (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f.
Zephyranthes crociflora T.M.Howard & S.Ogden
Zephyranthes cubensis Urb.
Zephyranthes depauperata Herb.
Zephyranthes dichromantha T.M.Howard
Zephyranthes diluta Ravenna
Zephyranthes drummondii D.Don in R.Sweet – giant rain lily, prairie lily, Hill Country rain lily (US)
Zephyranthes elegans Ravenna
Zephyranthes erubescens S.Watson
Zephyranthes filifolia Herb. ex Kraenzl.
Zephyranthes flavissima Ravenna – yellow rain lily
Zephyranthes fluvialis Ravenna
Zephyranthes fosteri Traub
Zephyranthes fragrans Ravenna
Zephyranthes gracilis Herb.
Zephyranthes gratissima Ravenna
Zephyranthes guatemalensis L.B.Spencer
Zephyranthes hondurensis Ravenna
Zephyranthes howardii Traub
Zephyranthes insularum H.H.Hume ex Moldenke (W. coast of Mexico)
Zephyranthes jonesii (Cory) Traub (US)
Zephyranthes katheriniae L.B.Spencer (Mexico)
Zephyranthes lagesiana Ravenna
Zephyranthes latissimifolia L.B.Spencer
Zephyranthes leucantha T.M.Howard
Zephyranthes lindleyana Herb. (Mexico)
Zephyranthes longistyla Pax
Zephyranthes longituba Flory ex Flagg & G.Lom.Sm.[12]
Zephyranthes macrosiphon Baker (Mexico)
Zephyranthes mesochloa Herb. ex Lindl. (South America)
Zephyranthes microstigma Ravenna
Zephyranthes minima Herb.
Zephyranthes minuta (Kunth) D.Dietr.
Zephyranthes miradorensis (Kraenzl.) Espejo & López-Ferr.
Zephyranthes moctezumae T.M.Howard (Mexico)
Zephyranthes modesta Ravenna
Zephyranthes morrisclintii Traub & T.M.Howard – Morris-Clint's rain lily
Zephyranthes nelsonii Greenm.
Zephyranthes nervosa Herb.
Zephyranthes nymphaea T.M.Howard & S.Ogden
Zephyranthes orellanae Carnevali
Zephyranthes paranaensis Ravenna
Zephyranthes parvula Killip = Zephyranthes andina (R.E.Fr.) Traub
Zephyranthes plumieri H.H.Hume ex Moldenke
Zephyranthes primulina T.M.Howard & S.Ogden – yellow rain lily (Mexico)
Zephyranthes proctorii Acev.-Rodr. & M.T.Strong
Zephyranthes pseudocolchicum Kraenzl.
Zephyranthes puertoricensis Traub
Zephyranthes pulchella J.G.Sm.
Zephyranthes purpurella Ravenna
Zephyranthes pusilla (Herb.) D.Dietr. = Zephyranthes americana (Hoffmanns.) Ravenna
Zephyranthes refugiensis F.B.Jones – Refugio zephyr lily
Zephyranthes reginae T.M.Howard & S.Ogden – Queens rain lily (Mexico)
Zephyranthes rosalensis Ravenna
Zephyranthes rosea Lindl. – pink rain lily
Zephyranthes sessilis Herb.
Zephyranthes simpsonii Chapm. – Simpson's lily, Carolina Atamasco lily
Zephyranthes smallii (Alexander) Traub – Small's rain lily
Zephyranthes stellaris Ravenna
Zephyranthes subflava L.B.Spencer
Zephyranthes susatana Fern.Alonso & Groenend.
Zephyranthes traubii (W.Hayw.) Moldenke – Traub's rain lily, San Carlos rain lily, Mexican rain lily
Zephyranthes treatiae S.Watson
Zephyranthes tucumanensis Hunz.
Zephyranthes uruguaianica Ravenna
Zephyranthes verecunda Herb. = Zephyranthes minuta (Kunth) D.Dietr.
Zephyranthes versicolor (Herb.) G.Nicholson
Zephyranthes wrightii Baker
Zephyranthes yaviensis Ravenna

Some other names are found in the horticultural literature, but as of September 2011 not in scientific databases of plant names, such as the Kew Checklist or the International Plant Names Index. These include: Zephyranthes huastecana, Zephyranthes lancasterae, Zephyranthes sylvestris and Zephyranthes zeyheri. Zephyranthes sulphurea is Z. citrina.
Formerly placed here

Cooperia pedunculata Herb. (as Z. drummondii D.Don)
Habranthus arenicola (Brandegee) Flagg, G.Lom.Sm. & Meerow (as Z. arenicola Brandegee)[2]
Habranthus cardinalis (C.H.Wright) Sealy (as Z. cardinalis C.H.Wright)
Habranthus chichimeca (T.M.Howard & S.Ogden) Flagg, G.Lom.Sm. & Meerow (as Z. chichimeca T.M.Howard & S.Ogden)
Habranthus longifolius (Hemsl.) Flagg, G.Lom.Sm. & Meerow (as Z. aurea S.Watson[2] and Z. longifolia Hemsl.)
Habranthus longipes (Baker) Sealy (as Z. longipes Baker)
Habranthus robustus Herb. (as Z. robusta (Herb.) Baker)
Pyrolirion aureum Herb. (as Z. aurea (Herb.) Baker)[11]

Named hybrids and cultivars

annotated where possible

'Ajax' – Z. candida × Z. citrina
'Apricot Queen' – apricot color hybridized by T. Howard
'Aquarius' – Z. candida × 'Ajax'
'Bali Beauty' – Fadjar Marta hybrid
'Bangkok yellow' – Z. candida × Z. citrina
'Batik' – Fadjar Marta hybrid offered by Plant Delights Nursery (PDN) in North Carolina
'Bayberry Bells'
'Becky Sellars' – cherry red
'Benidama' – pink
'Best Pink' – trihybrid (Z. candida × Z. citrina × Z. macrosiphon) pink
'Big Shot' – Z. traubii hybrid, ivory white
'Big Dude'
'Bronze Beauty'
'Capricorn' – hybridized by T. Howard, orange
'Carmen Jones' – red
'Cherry Fireball' – red, fades to pink
'Confection'
'Cookie'Cutter Moon' – Yucca Do release, white (excellent parent)
'Copper Mine' – Marta hybrid, orange, Plants Delight Nursery (PDN) release
'Dark Pink Spider' – F1 fertile Z. carinata hybrid
'El Cielo'
'Ellen Korsakoff'
'Fadjar's Pink' – Marta hybrid
'Fadjar's Pink' × Z. primulina – excellent Frechette hybrid
'Fadjar's Pink' × Z. regina – very fast growing Frechette hybrid
'Fantasy Island' – Marta hybrid, PDN release
'Fireball' – swirly orange and red (fades to white)
'Goliath' – PDN release – fertile Z. carinata hybrid
'Grand Canyon'
'Grandjax'
'Horsetail Falls' – usually distributed as a cultivar, this species originally a collected plant (Z. lindleyana), large leaves & bulb
'Ivory Star' – ivory (apomictic)
'Jacala Crimson' – bred from Z. katherinae
'Jakarta Jewel' – Marta hybrid, double, center petals reduced in size
'Java' – Marta hybrid PDN release, bright orange, yellow throat hold color well
'Jim Frechette' – F1 fertile Z. carinata, fast offset, blooms 1 year from seed
'JoAnn Trial' – hybridized by Marta
'Krakatau' – Marta hybrid, red orange
'La Siberica'
La Bufa Rosa Group, formerly 'La Bufa Rosa'[13] (frequently incorrectly spelt, e.g. "Labuffarosa")
'Laredo Yellow'
'Libra'
'Lily Pies' – selection from La Bufa Rosa Group
'Lydia Luckman' – Marta hybrid, pink yellow blend
'Manning's Hybrid' – parent includes Z. robusta
'Michelle Casillas' – neon yellow hybrid
'Moulin Rouge' – PDN release (double) pink and yellow blend
'Norma Pearl' – intergeneric cross – white
'Orange Big Shot × Pink Big Shot' – ('Big Shot' × Z. macrosiphon)
'Orange Big Shot' – orange
'Panama Pink' – Zephyranthes × flaggii
'Paul Niemi' – Marta hybrid, orange (apomictic)
'Pink Spider' – Fertile F1 Z. carinata × 'El Cielo'
'Pink Panther' – selection from La Bufa Rosa Group
'Prairie Sunset' – apricot-fades white, also sold as "copper rain lily"
'Redneck Romance' – hybridized by Tony Avent
'Rosea'
'Ruth Page'
'Salinas' - refers to collection site in Ecuador. White flowers (not Z candida)
'Salmon Big Shot' – salmon pink, 'Big Shot' parentage
'San Carlos' – exceptionally fragrant, white
'Shannon Hill' – wine-pink hybrid of Z. clintae, non-fading
'Shannon Hill × South Pacific' – Marta hybrid, introduced by PDN
'Starfrost'
'Summer's Chill'
'Sunset Strain' – yellow w/red stripes (apomictic)
'Tall Pink' – fertile F1 Z. carinata hybrid
'Teddy Buhler'
'Tenexico' – may be a natural hybrid? Yucca Do release – small flowered apricot
'Tenexio Apricot'
'Trihybrid' – [(Z. candida × Z. citrina) × Z. macrosiphon] marginally fertile
'Twinkle'
'Twisted Sister' – Yucca Do release, pastel apricot fades to ivory-white
'Valles Yellow' – this is the original name of Z. reginae and is not a hybrid or cultivar
'White Swan'
'XZB-H21' – Fellers hybrid not in commerce – white
'Yellow Big Shot' – ('Big Shot' × Z. citrina)

See also

List of plants known as lily

References

"Genus: Zephyranthes Herb". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
WCSP (2011), World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-09-23, search for "Zephyranthes"
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Amaryllidoideae
Mabberly, D.J. 1987. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press.
Zephyranthes etymologies, Wordnik, accessed February 23, 2010, citing Century Dictionary
Kojima et al. 1997.
"Katoch D and Singh B, Med Aromat Plants" (PDF).
Marta 2005
RoyChowdhury 2006
"GRIN Species Records of Zephyranthes". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
http://www.ipni.org/

Zephyranthes La Bufa Rosa Group nomenclature, Yucca Do Nursery, inc., 2011, archived from the original on 2011-09-27, retrieved 2011-09-27

Bibliography

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Fellers, J. H. 1996. A Passion for Rainlilies: Cooperia, Habranthus and Zephyranthes. Herbertia 51:78–112.
Kapoor, B.M. and S. I. Tandon 1963. Contribution to the cytology of endosperm in some angiosperms IV: Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl.. Genentica 34:1:101–112.
Marta, F. 2005. Breeding of Rainlilies. Bulbs: Bulletin of the International Bulb Society. 7(1)[January–June]:25–32.
Meerow, A.W., M. F. Fay, C.L. Guy, Q.B. Li, F.Q. Zaman and M.W. Chase. 1999. Systematics of Amaryllidaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid RBCL and TML-F sequences of data. American Journal of Botany. 86:1325–1345.
Rainia, N.S. and TN Khoshhoo. 1971. Cytogenetics of Tropical Bulbous Ornamentals IX: Breeding system in Zephytanthes. Euphytica. 21:317–323.
RoyChowdhury, M. and J. Hubstenberger. 2006. Evaluation of cross pollination of Zephyranthes and Habranthus species and hybrids. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 60:113–118.
Soule, J. A. 2005. "Z" is for Zephyranthes. Explorer Newspaper (Tucson, Arizona) 24 Aug. 2005.
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