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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Zingiberales

Familia: Zingiberaceae
Subfamilia: Zingiberoideae
Tribus: Zingibereae
Genus: Zingiber
Species: Z. acuminatum – Z. aguingayae – Z. albiflorum – Z. album – Z. anamalayanum – Z. angustifolium – Z. apoense – Z. argenteum – Z. arunachalensis – Z. atroporphyreum – Z. atrorubens – Z. aurantiacum – Z. banhaoense – Z. barbatum – Z. belumense – Z. bipinianum – Z. bisectum – Z. brachystachys – Z. bradleyanum – Z. brevifolium – Z. bulusanense – Z. callianthus – Z. capitatum – Z. cardiocheilum – Z. castaneum – Z. caudatum – Z. cernuum – Z. chantaranothaii – Z. chengii – Z. chlorobracteatum – Z. chrysanthum – Z. chrysostachys – Z. citriodorum – Z. clarkei – Z. cochleariforme – Z. collinsii – Z. coloratum – Z. corallinum – Z. cornubracteatum – Z. curtisii – Z. cylindricum – Z. densissimum – Z. discolor – Z. diwakarianum – Z. eberhardtii – Z. eborinum – Z. elatius – Z. elatum – Z. ellipticum – Z. engganoense – Z. fallax – Z. flagelliforme – Z. flammeum – Z. flaviflorum – Z. flavofusiforme – Z. flavomaculosum – Z. flavovirens – Z. fragile – Z. fraseri – Z. georgeae – Z. gracile – Z. gramineum – Z. griffithii – Z. guangxiense – Z. gulinense – Z. hainanense – Z. idae – Z. incomptum – Z. inflexum – Z. integrilabrum – Z. integrum – Z. intermedium – Z. isanense – Z. jiewhoei – Z. junceum – Z. kangleipakense – Z. kawagoii – Z. kelabitianum – Z. kerrii – Z. kunstleri – Z. lambii – Z. laoticum – Z. larsenii – Z. latifolium – Z. lecongkietii – Z. leptorrhizum – Z. leptostachyum – Z. leucochilum – Z. ligulatum – Z. limianum – Z. lingyunense – Z. loerzingii – Z. longibracteatum – Z. longiglande – Z. longiligulatum – Z. longipedunculatum – Z. longyanjiang – Z. macradenium – Z. macrocephalum – Z. macroglossum – Z. macrorrhynchus – Z. malaysianum – Z. marginatum – Z. martini – Z. matangense – Z. matupiense – Z. matutumense – Z. mawangense – Z. meghalayense – Z. mekongense – Z. mellis – Z. microcheilum – Z. mioga – Z. mizoramense – Z. molle – Z. monglaense – Z. monophyllum – Z. montanum – Z. multibracteatum – Z. murlenica – Z. nanlingense – Z. natmataungense – Z. nazrinii – Z. neesanum – Z. neglectum – Z. negrosense – Z. neotruncatum – Z. nigrimaculatum – Z. nimmonii – Z. nitens – Z. niveum – Z. odoriferum – Z. officinale – Z. oligophyllum – Z. olivaceum – Z. orbiculatum – Z. ottensii – Z. pachysiphon – Z. panduratum – Z. papuanum – Z. pardocheilum – Z. parishii – Z. pauciflorum – Z. pellitum – Z. pendulum – Z. petiolatum – Z. pherimaense – Z. phillippsiae – Z. phumiangense – Z. pleiostachyum – Z. plicatum – Z. popaense – Z. porphyrochilum – Z. porphyrosphaerum – Z. pseudopungens – Z. pseudosquarrosum – Z. puberulum – Z. purpureum – Z. pyroglossum – Z. raja – Z. recurvatum – Z. roseum – Z. rubens – Z. rufopilosum – Z. sabuanum – Z. sabun – Z. sadakornii – Z. salarkhanii – Z. shuanglongense – Z. simaoense – Z. singapurense – Z. skornickovae – Z. smilesianum – Z. spectabile – Z. squarrosum – Z. stenostachys – Z. striolatum – Z. subroseum – Z. sulphureum – Z. tenuifolium – Z. tenuiscapus – Z. thorelii – Z. tuanjuum – Z. ultralimitale – Z. vanlithianum – Z. velutinum – Z. ventricosum – Z. vinosum – Z. viridiflavum – Z. vittacheilum – Z. vuquangense – Z. wandingense – Z. wightianum – Z. wrayi – Z. yersinii – Z. yingjiangense – Z. yunnanense – Z. zerumbet – Z. zhuxiense
Source(s) of checklist:
Unresolved names

Z. xishuangbannaense


Zingiber Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754), as "Zinziber" nom. cons., orth. cons.

Type species: Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8: 348 (1807)


Amomum L., Sp. Pl.: 1 (1753), nom. rej. non Amomum Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3: 75 (1820), nom. cons.
Pacoseroca Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 67, 586 (1763), nom. superfl.
Thumung J.Koenig in A.J.Retzius, Observ. Bot. 3: 62 (1783)
Dieterichia Giseke, Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 199 (1792)
Jaegera Giseke, Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 203 (1792)
Cassumunar Colla, Nov. Scitam. Gen.: 9 (1830)
Zerumbet T.Lestib., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 15: 329 (1841), nom. illeg.
Dymczewiczia Horan., Prodr. Monogr. Scitam.: 26 (1862)


Zingiber Boehm. Def. Gen. Pl. (ed. 3) 89. (1760) nom. rej. isonym.
Zingiber Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 66. (1763), isonym.

Primary references

Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary. Abridged. Ed. 4, Vol. 1–3 (unpaged). John & James Rivington, London. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.79061 Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Zingiber in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Aug 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Zingiber. Published online. Accessed: May 5 2015.
Tropicos.org 2015. Zingiber. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 May 5.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Імбір
English: Ginger (not culinary)
eesti: Ingver
suomi: Inkiväärit

The genus Zingiber is native to Southeast Asia especially in Thailand,[3] China, the Indian Subcontinent, and New Guinea.[2][4][5][6] It contains the true gingers, plants grown the world over for their medicinal and culinary value. The most well known are Z. officinale and Z. mioga, two garden gingers.


Each ginger species has a different culinary usage; for example, myoga is valued for the stem and flowers. Garden ginger's rhizome is the classic spice "ginger", and may be used whole, candied (known commonly as crystallized ginger), or dried and powdered. Other popular gingers used in cooking include cardamom and turmeric,[7] though neither of these examples is a "true ginger" – they belong to different genera in the family Zingiberaceae.
Zingiber cernuum
Zingiber officinale
Zingiber ottensii
Zingiber macradenium
Zingiber spectabile
Zingiber wrayi
Zingiber zerumbet
Zingiber montanum
Zingiber parishii

Plants of the World Online currently includes:[8]

Zingiber acuminatum Valeton
Zingiber aguingayae Docot
Zingiber albiflorum R.M.Sm.
Zingiber album Nurainas
Zingiber anamalayanum Sujanapal & Sasidh.
Zingiber angustifolium C.K.Lim & Meekiong
Zingiber apoense Elmer
Zingiber argenteum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber arunachalensis A.Joe, T.Jayakr., Hareesh & M.Sabu
Zingiber atroporphyreum Škornick. & Q.B.Nguyen
Zingiber atrorubens Gagnep.
Zingiber aurantiacum (Holttum) Theilade
Zingiber banhaoense Mood & Theilade
Zingiber barbatum Wall.
Zingiber belumense C.K.Lim & Meekiong
Zingiber bipinianum D.K.Roy, D.Verma, Talukdar & Dutta Choud.
Zingiber bisectum D.Fang
Zingiber brachystachys Triboun & K.Larsen[9]
Zingiber bradleyanum Craib
Zingiber brevifolium N.E.Br.
Zingiber bulusanense Elmer
Zingiber callianthus Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber capitatum Roxb.
Zingiber cardiocheilum Škornick. & Q.B.Nguyen
Zingiber castaneum Škornick. & Q.B.Nguyen
Zingiber caudatum Biseshwori & Bipin
Zingiber cernuum Dalzell
Zingiber chantaranothaii Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber chengii Y.H.Tseng, C.M.Wang & Y.C.Lin
Zingiber chlorobracteatum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber chrysanthum Roscoe
Zingiber chrysostachys Ridl.
Zingiber citriodorum Theilade & Mood
Zingiber clarkei King ex Baker
Zingiber cochleariforme D.Fang
Zingiber collinsii Mood & Theilade
Zingiber coloratum N.E.Br.
Zingiber corallinum Hance
Zingiber cornubracteatum Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber curtisii Holttum
Zingiber cylindricum Thwaites
Zingiber densissimum S.Q.Tong & Y.M.Xia
Zingiber discolor Škornick., H.Ð.Tran & Rybková
Zingiber diwakarianum R.Kr.Singh
Zingiber eberhardtii Gagnep.
Zingiber eborinum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber elatius (Ridl.) Theilade
Zingiber elatum Roxb.
Zingiber ellipticum (S.Q.Tong & Y.M.Xia) Q.G.Wu & T.L.Wu
Zingiber engganoense Ardiyani
Zingiber fallax (Loes.) L.Bai, Juan Chen & N.H.Xia
Zingiber flagelliforme Mood & Theilade
Zingiber flammeum Theilade & Mood
Zingiber flaviflorum C.K.Lim & Meekiong
Zingiber flavofusiforme M.M.Aung & Nob.Tanaka
Zingiber flavomaculosum S.Q.Tong
Zingiber flavovirens Theilade
Zingiber fragile S.Q.Tong
Zingiber fraseri Theilade
Zingiber georgeae Mood & Theilade
Zingiber gracile Jack
Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume
Zingiber griffithii Baker
Zingiber guangxiense D.Fang
Zingiber gulinense Y.M.Xia
Zingiber hainanense Y.S.Ye, L.Bai & N.H.Xia
Zingiber idae Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber incomptum B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm.
Zingiber inflexum Blume
Zingiber integrilabrum Hance
Zingiber integrum S.Q.Tong
Zingiber intermedium Baker
Zingiber isanense Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber jiewhoei Škornick.
Zingiber junceum Gagnep.
Zingiber kangleipakense Kishor & Škornick.
Zingiber kawagoii Hayata
Zingiber kelabitianum Theilade & H.Chr.
Zingiber kerrii Craib
Zingiber kunstleri King ex Ridl.
Zingiber lambii Mood & Theilade
Zingiber laoticum Gagnep.
Zingiber larsenii Theilade
Zingiber latifolium Theilade & Mood
Zingiber lecongkietii Škornick. & H.Ð.Tran
Zingiber leptorrhizum D.Fang
Zingiber leptostachyum Valeton
Zingiber leucochilum L.Bai, Skornick. & N.H.Xia
Zingiber ligulatum Roxb.
Zingiber limianum Meekiong
Zingiber lingyunense D.Fang
Zingiber loerzingii Valeton
Zingiber longibracteatum Theilade
Zingiber longiglande D.Fang & D.H.Qin
Zingiber longiligulatum S.Q.Tong
Zingiber longipedunculatum Ridl.
Zingiber longyanjiang Z.Y.Zhu
Zingiber macradenium K.Schum.
Zingiber macrocephalum (Zoll.) K.Schum.
Zingiber macroglossum Valeton
Zingiber macrorrhynchus K.Schum.
Zingiber malaysianum C.K.Lim : black ginger
Zingiber marginatum Roxb.
Zingiber martini R.M.Sm.
Zingiber matangense Noor Ain, Tawan & Meekiong
Zingiber matupiense M.M.Aung & Nob.Tanaka
Zingiber matutumense Mood & Theilade
Zingiber mawangense Noor Ain & Meekiong
Zingiber meghalayense Sushil K.Singh, Ram.Kumar & Mood
Zingiber mekongense Gagnep.
Zingiber mellis Škornick., H.Ð.Tran & Sída f.
Zingiber microcheilum Škornick., H.Ð.Tran & Sída f.
Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe
Zingiber mizoramense Ram.Kumar, Sushil K.Singh & S.Sharma
Zingiber molle Ridl.
Zingiber monglaense S.J.Chen & Z.Y.Chen
Zingiber monophyllum Gagnep.
Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. (synonyms: Z. cassumunar; Z. purpureum)
Zingiber multibracteatum Holttum
Zingiber murlenica Ram.Kumar, Sushil K.Singh & S.Sharma
Zingiber nanlingense Lin Chen, A.Q.Dong & F.W.Xing
Zingiber natmataungense S.S.Zhou & R.Li
Zingiber nazrinii C.K.Lim & Meekiong
Zingiber neesanum (J.Graham) Ramamoorthy
Zingiber neglectum Valeton
Zingiber negrosense Elmer
Zingiber neotruncatum T.L.Wu, K.Larsen & Turland
Zingiber nigrimaculatum S.Q.Tong
Zingiber nimmonii (J.Graham) Dalzell
Zingiber nitens M.F.Newman
Zingiber niveum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber odoriferum Blume
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Zingiber oligophyllum K.Schum.
Zingiber olivaceum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber orbiculatum S.Q.Tong
Zingiber ottensii Valeton
Zingiber pachysiphon B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm.
Zingiber panduratum Roxb.
Zingiber papuanum Valeton
Zingiber pardocheilum Wall. ex Baker
Zingiber parishii Hook.f.
Zingiber pauciflorum L.Bai, Skornick., D.Z.Li & N.H.Xia
Zingiber pellitum Gagnep.
Zingiber pendulum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber petiolatum (Holttum) Theilade
Zingiber pherimaense Biseshwori & Bipin
Zingiber phillippsiae Mood & Theilade
Zingiber phumiangense Chaveer. & Mokkamul
Zingiber pleiostachyum K.Schum.
Zingiber plicatum Škornick. & Q.B.Nguyen
Zingiber popaense Nob.Tanaka
Zingiber porphyrochilum Y.H.Tan & H.B.Ding[10]
Zingiber porphyrosphaerum K.Schum.
Zingiber pseudopungens R.M.Sm.
Zingiber pseudosquarrosum L.J.Singh & P.Singh
Zingiber puberulum Ridl.
Zingiber purpureum Roscoe
Zingiber pyroglossum Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber raja C.K.Lim & Kharuk.
Zingiber recurvatum S.Q.Tong & Y.M.Xia
Zingiber roseum (Roxb.) Roscoe
Zingiber rubens Roxb.
Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep.
Zingiber sabuanum K.M.P.Kumar & A.Joe
Zingiber sabun C.K.Lim
Zingiber sadakornii Triboun & K.Larsen[9]
Zingiber salarkhanii M.A.Rahman & Yusuf
Zingiber shuanglongense C.L.Yeh & S.W.Chung
Zingiber simaoense Y.Y.Qian
Zingiber singapurense Škornick.
Zingiber skornickovae N.S.Lý
Zingiber smilesianum Craib
Zingiber spectabile Griff.
Zingiber squarrosum Roxb.
Zingiber stenostachys K.Schum.
Zingiber striolatum Diels
Zingiber subroseum Docot
Zingiber sulphureum Burkill ex Theilade
Zingiber tenuifolium L.Bai, Škornick. & N.H.Xia
Zingiber tenuiscapus Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber thorelii Gagnep.
Zingiber tuanjuum Z.Y.Zhu
Zingiber ultralimitale Ardiyani & A.D.Poulsen
Zingiber vanlithianum Koord.
Zingiber velutinum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber ventricosum L.Bai, Škornick., N.H.Xia & Y.S.Ye
Zingiber vinosum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber viridiflavum Mood & Theilade
Zingiber vittacheilum Triboun & K.Larsen
Zingiber vuquangense N.S.Lý, T.H.Lê, T.H.Trinh, V.H.Nguyen & N.D.Do
Zingiber wandingense S.Q.Tong
Zingiber wightianum Thwaites
Zingiber wrayi Prain ex Ridl.
Zingiber yersinii Škornick., H.Ð.Tran & Rybková
Zingiber yingjiangense S.Q.Tong
Zingiber yunnanense S.Q.Tong & X.Z.Liu
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. : shampoo ginger
Zingiber zhuxiense G.X.Hu & S.Huang


Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
"Species New to Science: [Botany • 2014] A Key to the Genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand with Descriptions of 10 New Taxa | พรรณพฤกษชาติ สกุลขิง ในประเทศไทย". 2014-07-24.
Flora of China v 24 p 323, 姜属 jiang shu, Zingiber Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. vol. 3. 1754.
Govaerts, R. (2004). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Tripathi, S. & Singh, K.K. (2006). Taxonomic revision of the genus Zingiber Boehm. in North-East India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 520–532.
"Flower notebook: Zingiber". Kalani Tropicals. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
Plants of the World Online: Zingiber Mill. (retrieved 11 September 2021)
"Species New to Science: [Botany • 2014] A Key to the Genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand with Descriptions of 10 New Taxa | พรรณพฤกษชาติ สกุลขิง ในประเทศไทย". 2014-07-24.
Ding, Hong-Bo; Yang, Bin; Lu, Xiao-Qiang; Tan, Yun-Hong (2020). "Zingiber porphyrochilum (Zingiberaceae), a New Species from Yunnan, China". Annales Botanici Fennici. 57 (4–6): 197–201. doi:10.5735/085.057.0401. ISSN 0003-3847. S2CID 225966485.

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