This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field.
Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important:
* Topic creator – A publication that created a new topic.
* Robert Boyle 1661
Description: Boyle, in the form of a dialogue, argued that chemical theories should be firmly grounded in experiment before their acceptance, and for the foundation of chemistry as a science separate from medicine and alchemy.
Importance: Topic Creator, Influence. Boyle, in this book, became the first to argue that experiment should form the basis of all theory, a common practice in chemistry today. He also expounded on a rudimentary atomic theory and the existence of chemical elements beyond the classic earth, fire, air, and water. He is seen as the father of chemistry, and this is his most celebrated book.
* Antoine Lavoisier
Description: This book was intended as an introduction to new theories in chemistry and as such, was one of the first Chemistry textbooks.
Importance: Introduction, Influence. Aside from being one of the first chemistry textbooks, the book was one of the first to state the Law of conservation of mass, define a chemical element, and contain a list of known elements.
* Guyton de Morveau, L. B.; Lavoisier, A. L.; Berthollet, C. L.; de Fourcroy, A. F.
Description: This publication laid out a logical system for naming chemical substances (mainly chemical elements and inorganic compounds).
Importance: Prior to this publication, a multitude of names were often used for the same substance. This publication led to an international consensus on how to name chemical substances.
* John Dalton, 1808 - 1827
Description: This book explained Dalton's theory of atoms and its applications to chemistry.
Importance: Topic Creator, Breakthrough, Influence. The book was one of the first to describe a modern atomic theory, a theory that lies at the basis of modern chemistry. Surprisingly, given the period in which the book was written, of the five properties of atoms that Dalton listed, only two have been shown to be incorrect.
* Dmitri Mendeleev
Description: In this paper the periodic table was introduced. Notice that the table in the above link is the original one. Since then the table structure was slightly changed and new elements were added to it.
Importance: Topic creator, breakthrough, influence
* Volume editors are here. Article authors for each volume can be found here.
Description: Contains synthetic models selected by world-renowned experts, with full experimental procedures and background information. Considers methods from journals, books, and patent literature from the early 1800s up to the present day and presents important synthetic methods for all classes of compounds. Critically evaluates the preparative applicability and significance of the synthetic methods.
* Michael B. Smith, Jerry March
Description: A comprehensive reference for organic chemistry with over 25,000 references.
* Elias James Corey, Xue-Min Cheng
Description: Describes the logic underlying the rational design of complex organic synthesis.
Importance: Breakthrough, Influence
* Theodora W. Greene, Peter G. M. Wuts
Description: A comprehensive reference for the usage of protecting groups in organic synthesis.
* Richard C. Larock
Description: A standard reference for the practicing organic chemist. These books are just enormous lists of key references indexed by functional group transformations.
* Ernest L. Eliel
Description: systematic and complete exposition of all aspects of organic stereochemistry
Importance: standard advanced text for organic stereochemistry.
* K.C. Nicolaou and E.J. Sorensen
Description. The synthesis of famous molecules done by the masters of organic chemistry
Importance. A standard postgraduate text book for the study of total synthesis and a valuable reference work for experts. "..destined to become a classic itself".
* F. Albert Cotton
Description: The group theory book for chemists
Importance: Significant influence by introducing group theory to a much wider group of chemists.
* F. Albert Cotton and Geoffrey Wilkinson
Description: A classic general textbook for an undergraduate course in inorganic chemistry
Importance: This book is not only a good introduction to the subject, it was very different from earlier texts and "led to a fundamental shift in the way in which inorganic chemistry was studied". It seemed to be symbolic of the renaissance in inorganic chemistry starting in the 1950s. Every new text in inorganic chemistry since this text has had to respond to it.
* P. W. Atkins
Description: A classic general textbook for an undergraduate course in physical chemistry
Importance: This book is not only a good introduction to the subject, it was very different from earlier texts and altered the way physical chemistry was taught. The first edition was very widely used where English is the language of instruction. Other texts had to respond to the lead from Atkins. The current edition is the 8th edition.
* R. Stephen Berry, Stuart A. Rice, and John Ross
Description: An encyclopedic text and reference suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate study.
Importance: This massive text by outstanding research workers begins with simple systems and proceeds logically to the more complex phenomena of physical chemistry. The original literature is cited extensively, making the work useful as a reference as well as a textbook. Many topics of current research are treated. Its advanced and exhaustive coverage of the field, together with extensive coverage of modern topics, eclipses the former champion, the text by E. A. Moelwyn-Hughes.
* C. N. Hinshelwood
Description: This is a scholarly book which as its title suggests gives an overall structure to the discipline of physical chemistry by the British Nobel Prize winner.
Importance: An impressively scholarly work which influenced the development of physical chemistry and is still valuable today.
* James D. Watson and Francis Crick
Description: In this paper the structure of DNA was proposed. It consisted of a double helix with a phosphate backbone, unlike Linus Pauling and R.B. Corey's double helix where the backbone consisted of the bases. They conclude with the sly remark: "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material."
Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Influence
* Day, R. A. and Arthur L. Underwood
Importance: Introduction, Reference.
* Flory, Paul J.(1953)
Importance: First major text on polymer chemistry; presents both organic and physical chemistry aspects. Written by a chemist who made major contributions to the physical chemistry of polymers, for which he won the Nobel prize in 1974.
Description: Discusses structure and stereochemistry of synthetic polymers, polymerization kinetics, behaviour of polymers in solution, chain dimensions.
* Stumm, Werner and James J. Morgan.
Description. This book covers the full spectrum of the discipline including acid/base equilibria, carbonate chemistry, mass transfer, complexation, sorption phenomenon, oxidation/reduction, colloid chemistry, and flocculation/coagulation. The authors generally present the material using a ground up approach that emphasizes fundamental principles of thermodynamics and kinetics.
Importance. The publication is one of the most widely cited texts in environmental chemistry. In 1999, Stumm and Morgan received the Stockholm Water Prize for their contributions in the field. The citation specifically mentioned Aquatic Chemistry where it was described as a "seminal book" which is "used in education all over the world".
Mario J. Molina and F. S. Rowland, Nature 249, 810-812 (1974)
Description: This paper warned of the danger of ozone depletion due to man-made chlorofluorocarbons. The main atmospheric sink for these compounds was identified as ultraviolet photolysis, liberating chlorine atoms which catalyze the destruction of stratospheric ozone and have the potential to significantly deplete the ozone layer.
Importance: Influence, as described in the presentation speech for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995: “The findings presented by this year's laureates in chemistry have had an enormous political and industrial impact. This was because they clearly identified unacceptable environmental hazards in a large, economically important sector.” 
* Gibbs, Willard
Description: paper applied the thermodynamic theory of steam engines to atomic level chemical reactions; i.e., it established equilibrium criteria necessary to predict the thermodynamic tendency of chemical reactions at constant temperature and pressure.
Importance: topic creator; historian Bill Bryson states, in his A Short History of Nearly Everything, that Gibbs’ Equilibrium paper is "the Principia of thermodynamics". In addition, this paper, in many ways, functions as the mathematical foundation of physical chemistry.
* Allen J. Bard, Larry R. Faulkner
Description: Very comprehensive textbook in electrochemistry. Includes basic theory and practical applications.
Importance: One of the most widely used electrochemistry books in the world.
* Gilbert N. Lewis
Description: Discusses ionic and covalent bonding (polar and non-polar).
Importance: The book that introduced the modern concept of the covalent bond as the sharing of electron pairs, and tried to reconcile the chemist's empirical view of the atom with the physicist's and spectroscopist's quantum mechanical view. It could be considered a precursor to Pauling's books.
* Linus Pauling, E. Bright Wilson
Description: A classic and excellent introduction to quantum mechanics.
Importance: One of the earliest books that introduced quantum mechanics to chemists. It remains well loved by many to this day.
* C. A Coulson
Description: A classic introduction to valence and the theory of chemical binding.
Importance: This book is credited with causing the expansion of interest in molecular orbital theory from the 1950s.
* Linus Pauling
Description: A classic that was the first general book to introduce quantum mechanics to chemists.
Importance: Probably more than any other book, introduced quantum mechanics and, in particular, valence bond theory to experimental chemists.
* R. G. Parr and W. Yang,
Description: A very thorough and scholarly account of density functional theory.
Importance: This is a good introduction to the subject, but has particular significance in the way it describes how the theory throws new light on old chemical concepts such as electronegativity.
* Jean-Marie Lehn
Description: Comprenhensive textbook written by topic creator.
Importance: Most-popular textbook on subject (according to Amazon.com). Lehn coined the term "supermolecule" in '73, developed the concept of supramolecular chemistry in '78, and won the Nobel Prize for his supramolecular chemistry work in ’87.
* Michael J. Zaworotko
Description: Selected articles: "Supramolecular Medicinal Chemistry: Mixed-Ligand Coordination Complexes".Mol. Pharmaceutics, 2007, 4 (3), pp 373–385;"Pharmaceutical co-crystals".Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006, 95 (3), pp 499-516;"Crystal engineering of pharmaceutical co-crystals from polymorphic active pharmaceutical ingredients". Chem. Commun, 2005, pp 4601 - 4603.
Importance: Breakthrough, Influence
* Camille Georges Wermuth editor
Description: A great overview of the theory, methodology, and techniques of drug design.
Importance: Introduction, Influence
* List of publications in science
1. ^ "From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose - the study of the composition of substances. The formulation of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle. In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction." 1911 Britannica