Hellenica World

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Deep Impact mission, Comet Temple-1

Astronomy

April 8 – Total solar eclipse
February 23 – Astronomers announce the discovery of a galaxy, VIRGOHI21, that consists almost entirely of dark matter. The results are to appear in Astrophysics Journal.
March 23 – Two independent teams report the observation of light from planets circling two different stars, using the Spitzer infrared space telescope. Both groups detect a slight dimming in the light intensity during conjunction, when the planet is moving behind its sun's disk (occultation). (SpaceflightNow) Results will be published in Nature and Astrophysics Journal.
October 3 – Annular solar eclipse

Biology

August 31 – A first draft of the chimpanzee genome is published.
October 5 – The Spanish flu virus is reconstructed and shown to be closely related to the Avian influenza virus.
November 30 – Surgeons in France carry out the first human face transplant

[edit] Climatology

January 27 – Scientists behind the climateprediction.net project, a distributed computing project run from Oxford University, announce that first results indicate a long term surface temperature increase due to global warming of between 2 and 11 degrees Celsius as a consequence of doubling carbon dioxide levels, with most of the simulations predicting a temperature rise of around 3.4 °C. The results are published in Nature.

Paleontology

January 13 – Chinese paleontologists announce the discovery of fossils of Repenomamus robustus and Repenomamus giganticus, mammals that lived 130 million years ago. The fossil discoveries indicate that these mammals preyed on small dinosaurs. The results are published in Nature.
February 17 – Two Ethiopian fossil skulls originally found in 1967 by Richard Leakey, Omo I and Omo II, are re-dated at 195,000 years old, making them the oldest Homo Sapiens remains known. The results are published in Nature.
December 15 – European and Canadian researchers announce the dating of flint artefacts from Pakefield, Suffolk, UK to around 700,000 years ago, representing the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps. Results are published in Nature.

Physics

This has been named the World Year of Physics in honor of the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's Annus Mirabilis papers of 1905 and the resulting developments in the field of physics. Many institutions are celebrating by holding lecture series on Einstein, the history of special relativity and quantum mechanics and other public events surrounding the history of physics.

Space exploration

January 14 – The Huygens probe was successfully sent into the atmosphere of Titan and returns science data to Earth via the Cassini orbiter. It survives the landing on the surface of Titan and sends pictures and other data for more than an hour afterwards.
January 26 – ESA's SMART-1 begins sending back close range pictures of the lunar surface
February 7 – NASA announce budget plans – in the announcement, they state that a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope will not take place, and that a robotic mission to deorbit the telescope with a safe descent into an ocean will take place. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (Jimo) mission is also cancelled.
February 12 – ESA successfully launch an Ariane 5 ECA carrying three satellites. The previous attempt to launch the new design of rocket, in December 2002, failed when the rocket deviated from its course minutes into the flight.
July 4 – The Deep Impact spacecraft successfully observes the disintegration of its "impactor" section colliding with the comet Tempel 1. A large number of other telescopes also provide data on this event.


Appointments

January 26 – The NIH announce that Elizabeth Nabel will succeed Claude Lenfant as director of the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
February 7 – The National Academy of Sciences elects Ralph Cicerone as its next president, to begin his 6-year term on July 1. He takes over from Bruce Alberts.
February 25
– Robert Kirby-Harris is appointed as Chief Executive of the UK's Institute of Physics.
– Keith Mason is appointed as the new head of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council in the UK.
– Daniel Höchli is appointed director of the Swiss National Science Foundation.
April 13 – Michael D. Griffin is confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the next NASA administrator, succeeding Sean O'Keefe.
December 6 – Kaname Ikeda is appointed as first Director General of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

Other events

February 8 – Yale University wins more than $1 million in damages and attorney's fees, along with the patent rights relating to electrospray ionization from former professor and Nobel Prize winner John Fenn.

Deaths

February 3 – Ernst Mayr (b. 1904), leading evolutionary biologist.
February 6 – Hubert Curien (b. 1924), former President of CERN and first chairman of ESA.
February 10 – D. Allan Bromley, director of Yale's A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory
March 6 – Hans Bethe (b. 1906), Nobelaureate in Physics (1967) for his discoveries concerning the energy production mechanism in stars.
June 20 – Jack Kilby (b. 1923), Nobelaureate in Physics (2000) for his work on integrated circuits.
June 20 – Charles David Keeling (b. 1928), first to make frequent measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, plotted on the Keeling Curve.
October 28 – Richard Smalley (b. 1943), Nobelaureate in Chemistry (1996) for the discovery of a new form of carbon, Buckminsterfullerene.
November 16 – Henry Taube (b. 1915), Nobelaureate in Chemistry (1983) for his work in the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes.

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6 March 2005 Death of Hans Albrecht Bethe

6 May 2005, discovery of Daphnis

30 June 2005, Death of James Gilbert Baker in Bedford, New Hampshire, USA

28 October 2005 Death of Richard Errett Smalley

16 November 2005 Death of Henry Taube

Nobel Prize

Physics to Theodor Hänsch , John Hall for "contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique", Roy Glauber "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

Chemistry to Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard Royce Schrock "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Physiology or Medicine to Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Popular Science Jan 2005

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Source: Wikipedia, : All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Chronology

2004 - 2005 - 2006

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