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# Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī al-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858, Harran – 929, Qasr al-Jiss, near Samarra) was a Muslim astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician. He introduced a number of trigonometric relations, and his Kitāb az-Zīj was frequently quoted by many medieval astronomers, including Copernicus.[1]

Life

Little is known about al-Battānī's life beside that he was born in Harran near Urfa, in Upper Mesopotamia, which is now in Turkey, and his father was a famous maker of scientific instruments.[1] His epithet aṣ-Ṣabi’ suggests that among his ancestry were members of the Sabian sect; however, his full name indicates that he was Muslim.[2] Some western historians state that he is of noble origin, like an Arab prince,[3] but traditional Arabic biographers make no mention of this.[1] He lived and worked in ar-Raqqah, a city in north central Syria.

Astronomy

One of al-Battānī's best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds.[2]

He was able to correct some of Ptolemy's results and compiled new tables of the Sun and Moon, long accepted as authoritative.[3] Some of his measurements were even more accurate than ones taken by Copernicus many centuries later. Researchers have ascribed this phenomenon to al-Battānī being in a geographical location that is closer to the southern latitude, which might have been more favorable for such observations.[2]

Al-Battānī discovered that the direction of the Sun's eccentric, as recorded by Ptolemy, was changing.[4] He also discovered the movement of the Sun's apogee and introduced, probably independently of the 5th century Indian astronomer Aryabhata, the use of sines in calculation, and partially that of tangents.[3] He also calculated the values for the precession of the equinoxes (54.5" per year, or 1° in 66 years) and the obliquity of the ecliptic (23° 35').[2] He used a uniform rate for precession in his tables, choosing not to adopt the theory of trepidation attributed to his colleague Thabit ibn Qurra.

Al-Battānī's work is considered instrumental in the development of science and astronomy.[2] Copernicus mentioned his indebtedness to al-Battānī and quoted him in the book that initiated the Copernican Revolution, the De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. Al-Battānī was frequently quoted by Tycho Brahe, Riccioli, among others. Kepler and Galileo showed interest in some of his observations[1], and his data continues to be used in geophysics[5].

Mathematics

In mathematics, al-Battānī produced a number of trigonometrical relationships:

\( \tan a = \frac{\sin a}{\cos a} \)

\( \sec a = \sqrt{1 + \tan^2 a } \)

He also solved the equation sin x = a cos x discovering the formula:

\( \sin x = \frac{a}{\sqrt{1 + a^2}} \)

He gives other trigonometric formulae, such as:[2]

\( b \sin (A) = a \sin (90^\circ - A) \)

Al-Battānī used al-Marwazi's idea of tangents ("shadows") to develop equations for calculating tangents and cotangents, compiling tables of them. He also discovered the reciprocal functions of secant and cosecant, and produced the first table of cosecants, which he referred to as a "table of shadows" (in reference to the shadow of a gnomon), for each degree from 1° to 90°.[6]

Works

Al-Battānī's major work is Kitāb az-Zīj, or the book of astronomical tables, also known as az-Zīj aṣ-Ṣābi’. It was largely based on Ptolemy's theory, and other Greco-Syriac sources, while showing little Indian or Persian influence.[1][7] In his zij, he provided descriptions of a quadrant instrument.[8]

This book went through many translations to Latin and Spanish, including a Latin translation as De Motu Stellarum by Plato of Tivoli in 1116, which was later reprinted with annotations by Regiomontanus.[3] A reprint appeared at Bologna in 1645. The original MS. is preserved at the Vatican; and the Escorial library possesses in MS. a treatise of some value by him on astronomical chronology.[3]

Honors

The crater Albategnius on the Moon is named after him.

In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Excelsior-class starship USS Al-Batani [sic] NCC-42995, mentioned on Star Trek: Voyager as Kathryn Janeway's first deep space assignment, was named for him.

The Doctor Who novel Night of the Humans, features a solar system called Battani 045.

See also

List of Arab scientists and scholars

Zij

Notes

^ a b c d e Hartner, Willy (1970–80). "Al-Battānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad Ibn Jābir Ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī al–Ṣābi". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0684101149.

^ a b c d e f O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.

^ a b c d e Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albategnius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

^ Singer, Charles Joseph (1997). A short history of science to the nineteenth century. Courier Dover Publications. p. 135. ISBN 9780486298870.

^ Dalmau, W. (1997) CRITICAL REMARKS ON THE USE OF MEDIEVAL ECLIPSE RECORDS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LONG-TERM CHANGES IN THE EARTH'S ROTATION', Surveys in Geophysics 18: 213-223.

^ "trigonometry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-07-21.

^ E. S. Kennedy, A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 46, 2), Philadelphia, 1956, pp. 10–11, 32–34.

^ Moussa, Ali (2011). "Mathematical Methods in Abū al-Wafāʾ's Almagest and the Qibla Determinations". Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press) 21 (1). doi:10.1017/S095742391000007X.

References

Hartner, Willy (1970–80). "Al-Battānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad Ibn Jābir Ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī al–Ṣābi". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0684101149.

O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Abdallah Mohammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albategnius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links

Dalen, Benno van (2007). "Battānī: Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al‐Battānī al‐Ḥarrānī al‐Ṣābiʾ". In Thomas Hockey et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 101–3. ISBN 9780387310220. (PDF version)

Weisstein, Eric W., Albategnius (ca. 858–929) from ScienceWorld.

Texts on Wikisource:

"al-Battani, Mohammed ibn Jabir ibn Sinan". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albategnius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

"al-Battani". New International Encyclopedia. 1920.

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