.
Table of mathematical symbols by introduction date
The following table lists many specialized symbols commonly used in mathematics, ordered by their introduction date.
Symbol

Name  Date of earliest use  First author to use 

+
− 
plus and minus signs  ca. 1360 (abbreviation for Latin et resembling the plus sign)  Nicole Oresme 
1489 (first appearance of plus and minus signs in print)  Johannes Widmann  
√

radical symbol (for square root)  1525 (without the vinculum above the radicand)  Christoff Rudolff 
(…)

parentheses (for precedence grouping)  1544 (in handwritten notes)  Michael Stifel 
1556  Nicolo Tartaglia  
=

equals sign  1557  Robert Recorde 
×

multiplication sign  1618  William Oughtred 
±

plusminus sign  1628  
∷

proportion sign  
^{n}√

radical symbol (for nth root)  1629  Albert Girard 
<
> 
strict inequality signs (lessthan sign and greaterthan sign)  1631  Thomas Harriot 
x^{y}

superscript notation (for exponentiation)  1636 (using Roman numerals as superscripts)  James Hume 
1637 (in the modern form)  René Descartes  
√ ̅

radical symbol (for square root)  1637 (with the vinculum above the radicand)  René Descartes 
%

percent sign  ca. 1650  unknown 
÷

division sign (a.k.a. obelus)  1659  Johann Rahn 
∞

infinity sign  1655  John Wallis 
≤
≥ 
unstrict inequality signs (lessthan or equals to sign and greaterthan or equals to sign)  1670 (with the horizontal bar over the inequality sign, rather than below it)  
1734 (with double horizontal bar below the inequality sign)  Pierre Bouguer  
d

differential sign  1675  Gottfried Leibniz 
∫

integral sign  
:

colon (for division)  1684 (deriving from use of colon to denote fractions, dating back to 1633)  
·

middle dot (for multiplication)  1698 (perhaps deriving from a much earlier use of middle dot to separate juxtaposed numbers)  
⁄

division slash (a.k.a. solidus)  1718 (deriving from horizontal fraction bar, invented by Arabs in 12th century)  Thomas Twining 
≠

inequality sign (not equal to)  unknown  Leonhard Euler 
∑

summation symbol  1755  
∝

proportionality sign  1768  William Emerson 
∂

partial differential sign (a.k.a. curly d or Jacobi's delta)  1770  Marquis de Condorcet 
x′

prime symbol (for derivative)  Joseph Louis Lagrange  
≡

identity sign (for congruence relation)  1801 (first appearance in print; used previously in personal writings of Gauss)  Carl Friedrich Gauss 
[x]

integral part (a.k.a. floor)  1808  
∏

product symbol  1812  
!

factorial  1808  Christian Kramp 
⊂
⊃ 
set inclusion signs (subset of, superset of)  1817  Joseph Gergonne 
1890  Ernst Schröder  
…

absolute value notation  1841  Karl Weierstrass 
determinant of a matrix  Arthur Cayley  
‖…‖

matrices notation  1843  
∇

nabla symbol (for vector differential)  1846 (previously used by Hamilton as a generalpurpose operator sign)  William Rowan Hamilton 
∩
∪ 
intersection and union signs  1888  Giuseppe Peano 
∈

membership sign (is an element of)  1894  
∃

existential quantifier (there exists)  1897  
ℵ

aleph symbol (for cardinal numbers of transfinite sets)  1893  Georg Cantor 
{…}

braces, a.k.a. curly brackets (for set notation)  1895  
ℕ

doublestruck capital N (for natural numbers set)  Giuseppe Peano  
·

middle dot (for dot product)  1902  J. Willard Gibbs? 
×

multiplication sign (for cross product)  
∨

logical disjunction (a.k.a. OR)  1906  Bertrand Russell 
(…)

matrices notation  1909  Gerhard Kowalewski 
[…]

1913  Cuthbert Edmund Cullis  
∮

contour integral sign  1917  Arnold Sommerfeld 
ℤ

doublestruck capital Z (for integer numbers set)  1930  Edmund Landau 
1930s  Nicolas Bourbaki  
ℚ

doublestruck capital Q (for rational numbers set)  
∀

universal quantifier (for all)  1935  Gerhard Gentzen 
∅

empty set sign  1939  André Weil / Nicolas Bourbaki 
ℂ

doublestruck capital C (for complex numbers set)  Nathan Jacobson  
→

arrow (for function notation)  1936 (to denote images of specific elements)  Øystein Ore 
1940 (in the present form of f: X → Y)  Witold Hurewicz  
⌊x⌋

integral part (a.k.a. floor)  1962  Kenneth E. Iverson 
∎

end of proof sign (a.k.a. tombstone)  unknown  Paul Halmos 
See also
History of mathematical notation
History of the HinduArabic numeral system
Table of mathematical symbols
Source
Jeff Miller: Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License