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In mathematics, Euler's idoneal numbers, (also called suitable numbers or convenient numbers), are the positive integers D such that any integer expressible in only one way as x2 ± Dy2 (where x2 is relatively prime to Dy2) is a prime, prime power, or twice one of these.

A positive integer n is idoneal if and only if it cannot be written as ab + bc + ac for distinct positive integer a, b, and c.[1]

The 65 idoneal numbers found by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Leonhard Euler and conjectured to be the only such numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 30, 33, 37, 40, 42, 45, 48, 57, 58, 60, 70, 72, 78, 85, 88, 93, 102, 105, 112, 120, 130, 133, 165, 168, 177, 190, 210, 232, 240, 253, 273, 280, 312, 330, 345, 357, 385, 408, 462, 520, 760, 840, 1320, 1365, and 1848 (sequence A000926 in OEIS). Weinberger proved in 1973 that at most one other idoneal number exists, and that if the generalized Riemann hypothesis holds, then the list is complete.
References

Z. I. Borevich and I. R. Shafarevich, Number Theory. Academic Press, NY, 1966, pp. 425–430.
D. Cox, "Primes of Form x2 + n y2", Wiley, 1989, p. 61.
L. Euler, "An illustration of a paradox about the idoneal, or suitable, numbers", 1806
G. Frei, Euler's convenient numbers, Math. Intell. Vol. 7 No. 3 (1985), 55–58 and 64.
O-H. Keller, Ueber die "Numeri idonei" von Euler, Beitraege Algebra Geom., 16 (1983), 79–91. [Math. Rev. 85m:11019]
G. B. Mathews, Theory of Numbers, Chelsea, no date, p. 263.
P. Ribenboim, "Galimatias Arithmeticae", in Mathematics Magazine 71(5) 339 1998 MAA or, 'My Numbers, My Friends', Chap.11 Springer-Verlag 2000 NY
J. Steinig, On Euler's ideoneal numbers, Elemente Math., 21 (1966), 73–88.
A. Weil, Number theory: an approach through history; from Hammurapi to Legendre, Birkhaeuser, Boston, 1984; see p. 188.
P. Weinberger, Exponents of the class groups of complex quadratic fields, Acta Arith., 22 (1973), 117–124.

^ Eric Rains, Comments on A000926, December 2007.

External links

K. S. Brown, Mathpages, Numeri Idonei
M. Waldschmidt, Open Diophantine problems
Weisstein, Eric W., "Idoneal Number" from MathWorld.

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