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# Anderson impurity model

The Anderson impurity model is a Hamiltonian that is used to describe magnetic impurities embedded in metallic hosts. It is often applied to the description of Kondo-type of problems, such as heavy fermion systems and Kondo insulators. In its simplest form, the model contains a term describing the kinetic energy of the conduction electrons, a two-level term with an on-site Coulomb repulsion that models the impurity energy levels, and a hybridization term that couples conduction and impurity orbitals. For a single impurity, the Hamiltonian takes the form

\( H = \sum_{\sigma}\epsilon_f f^{\dagger}_{\sigma}f_{\sigma} + \sum_{<j, j'>\sigma}t_{jj'} c^{\dagger}_{j\sigma}c_{j'\sigma} + \sum_{j,\sigma}(V_j f^{\dagger}_{\sigma}c_{j\sigma} + V_j^* c^{\dagger}_{j\sigma}f_{\sigma}) + Uf^{\dagger}_{\uparrow}f_{\uparrow}f^{\dagger}_{\downarrow}f_{\downarrow} \)

where the f operator corresponds to the annihilation operator of an impurity, and c corresponds to a conduction electron annihilation operator, and \(\sigma \)labels the spin. The onsite Coulomb repulsion is U, which is usually the dominant energy scale, and \(t_{jj'} \)is the hopping strength from site j to site j'. A significant feature of this model is the hybridization term V, which allows the f electrons in heavy fermion systems to become mobile, despite the fact they are separated by a distance greater than the Hill limit.

In heavy-fermion systems, we find we have a lattice of impurities. The relevant model is then the periodic Anderson model.

\(H = \sum_{j\sigma}\epsilon_f f^{\dagger}_{j\sigma}f_{j\sigma} + \sum_{<j, j'>\sigma}t_{jj'}c^{\dagger}_{j\sigma}c_{j'\sigma} + \sum_{j,\sigma}(V_j f^{\dagger}_{\sigma}c_{j\sigma} + V_j^* c^{\dagger}_{\sigma}f_{j\sigma}) + U\sum_{j}f^{\dagger}_{j\uparrow}f_{j\uparrow}f^{\dagger}_{j\downarrow}f_{j\downarrow} \)

There are other variants of the Anderson model, for instance the SU(4) Anderson model, which is used to describe impurities which have an orbital, as well as a spin, degree of freedom. This is relevant in carbon nanotube quantum dot systems. The SU(4) Anderson model Hamiltonian is

\(H = \sum_{i\sigma}\epsilon_f f^{\dagger}_{i\sigma}f_{i\sigma} + \sum_{<j, j'>\sigma}t_{ijj'} c^{\dagger}_{ij\sigma}c_{ij'\sigma} + \sum_{ij,\sigma}(V_j f^{\dagger}_{i\sigma}c_{ij\sigma} + V_j^* c^{\dagger}_{ij\sigma}f_{i\sigma}) + \sum_{i\sigma,i'\sigma '} \frac{U}{2}n_{i\sigma}n_{i'\sigma '} \)

where i and i' label the orbital degree of freedom (which can take one of two values), and n represents a number operator.

See also

Kondo effect

Kondo model

References

Anderson, P. W. (1961). "Localized Magnetic States in Metals". Phys. Rev. 124: 41. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.124.41.

Hewson, A. C. (1993). The Kondo Problem to Heavy Fermions. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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