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Power supply

A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from:

Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage.
Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.
Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators.
Solar power.

A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics.

Constraints that commonly affect power supplies include:

The amount of voltage and current they can supply.
How long they can supply energy without needing some kind of refueling or recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources).
How stable their output voltage or current is under varying load conditions.
Whether they provide continuous or pulsed energy.

Power supplies types

Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into line-frequency (or "conventional") and switching power supplies. The line-frequency supply is usually a relatively simple design, but it becomes increasingly bulky and heavy for high-current equipment due to the need for large mains-frequency transformers and heat-sinked electronic regulation circuitry. Conventional line-frequency power supplies are sometimes called "linear," but that is a misnomer because the conversion from AC voltage to DC is inherently non-linear when the rectifiers feed into capacitive reservoirs. Linear voltage regulators produce regulated output voltage by means of an active voltage divider that consumes energy, thus making efficiency low. A switched-mode supply of the same rating as a line-frequency supply will be smaller, is usually more efficient, but will be more complex.


A battery is an alternative to a line-operated power supply;[1] it is independent of the availability of mains electricity, suitable for portable equipment and use in locations without mains power. A battery consists of several electrochemical cells connected in series to provide the voltage desired. Batteries may be primary (able to supply current when constructed, discarded when drained) or secondary (rechargeable; can be charged, used, and recharged many times)

The primary cell first used was the carbon-zinc dry cell.[1] It had a voltage of 1.5 volts; later battery types have been manufactured, when possible, to give the same voltage per cell. Carbon-zinc and related cells are still used, but the alkaline battery delivers more energy per unit weight and is widely used. The most commonly used battery voltages are 1.5 (1 cell) and 9V (6 cells).

Various technologies of rechargeable battery are used. Types most commonly used are NiMH, and lithium ion and variants.

DC power supply
A home-made linear power supply (used here to power amateur radio equipment)

An AC powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used to convert alternating voltage to a pulsating direct voltage, followed by a filter, comprising one or more capacitors, resistors, and sometimes inductors, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining unwanted alternating voltage component at mains or twice mains power frequency (depending upon whether half- or full-wave rectification is used)—ripple—is unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage.

For purposes such as charging batteries the ripple is not a problem, and the simplest unregulated mains-powered DC power supply circuit consists of a transformer driving a single diode in series with a resistor.

Before the introduction of solid-state electronics, equipment used valves (vacuum tubes) which required high voltages; power supplies used step-up transformers, rectifiers, and filters to generate one or more direct voltages of some hundreds of volts, and a low alternating voltage for filaments. Only the most advanced equipment used expensive and bulky regulated power supplies.

AC power supply

An AC power supply typically takes the voltage from a wall outlet (mains supply, often 230v in Europe) and lowers it to the desired voltage (e.g. 9vac). As well as lowering the voltage some filtering may take place. An example use for an AC power supply is powering certain guitar effects pedals (e.g. the Digitech Whammy pedal) although it is more common for effects pedals to require DC.

Linear regulated power supply

The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear regulator may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the output direct current. Linear regulators often provide current limiting, protecting the power supply and attached circuit from overcurrent.

Adjustable linear power supplies are common laboratory and service shop test equipment, allowing the output voltage to be adjusted over a range. For example, a bench power supply used by circuit designers may be adjustable up to 30 volts and up to 5 amperes output. Some can be driven by an external signal, for example, for applications requiring a pulsed output.

AC/DC supply
Main article: AC/DC (electricity)

In the past, mains electricity was supplied as DC in some regions, AC in others. Transformers cannot be used for DC, but a simple, cheap unregulated power supply could run directly from either AC or DC mains without using a transformer. The power supply consisted of a rectifier and a filter capacitor. When operating from DC, the rectifier was essentially a conductor, having no effect; it was included to allow operation from AC or DC without modification.

Switched-mode power supply
Main article: Switched-mode power supply
A computer's switched mode power supply unit.

A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) works on a different principle. AC input, usually at mains voltage, is rectified without the use of a mains transformer, to obtain a DC voltage. This voltage is then switched on and off at a high speed by electronic switching circuitry, which may then pass through a high-frequency, hence small, light, and cheap, transformer or inductor. The duty cycle of the output square wave increases as power output requirements increase. Switched-mode power supplies are always regulated. If the SMPS uses a properly-insulated high-frequency transformer, the output will be electrically isolated from the mains, essential for safety.

The input power slicing occurs at a very high speed (typically 10 kHz — 1 MHz). High frequency and high voltages in this first stage permit much smaller transformers and smoothing capacitors than in a power supply operating at mains frequency, as linear supplies do. After the transformer secondary, the AC is again rectified to DC. To keep output voltage constant, the power supply needs a sophisticated feedback controller to monitor current drawn by the load.

SMPSs often include safety features such as current limiting or a crowbar circuit to help protect the device and the user from harm.[2] In the event that an abnormal high-current power draw is detected, the switched-mode supply can assume this is a direct short and will shut itself down before damage is done. For decades PC power supplies have provided a power good signal to the motherboard whose absence prevents operation when abnormal supply voltages are present.

SMPSs have an absolute limit on their minimum current output.[3] They are only able to output above a certain power level and cannot function below that point. In a no-load condition the frequency of the power slicing circuit increases to great speed, causing the isolated transformer to act as a Tesla coil, causing damage due to the resulting very high voltage power spikes. Switched-mode supplies with protection circuits may briefly turn on but then shut down when no load has been detected. A very small low-power dummy load such as a ceramic power resistor or 10-watt light bulb can be attached to the supply to allow it to run with no primary load attached.

Power factor has become a recent issue of concern for computer manufacturers. Switched mode power supplies have traditionally been a source of power line harmonics and have a very poor power factor. Many computer power supplies built in the last few years now include power factor correction built right into the switched-mode supply, and may advertise the fact that they offer 1.0 power factor.

By slicing up the sinusoidal AC wave into very small discrete pieces, a portion of unused alternating current stays in the power line as very small spikes of power that cannot be utilized by AC motors and results in waste heating of power line transformers. Hundreds of switched mode power supplies in a building can result in poor power quality for other customers surrounding that building, and high electric bills for the company if they are billed according to their power factor in addition to the actual power used. Filtering capacitor banks may be needed on the building power mains to suppress and absorb these negative power factor effects[citation needed].

Some switch-mode power supplies use L-C resonance in the primary circuit to convert what would otherwise be a square wave into a sinusoidal waveform. This can decrease the losses in the switching devices and reduce RF harmonics of the switching frequency, but it adds to the circuit complexity and places higher demands on design tolerances.

Programmable power supply
Programmable power supplies

Programmable power supplies allow for remote control of the output voltage through an analog input signal or a computer interface such as RS232 or GPIB. Variable properties include voltage, current, and frequency (for AC output units). These supplies are composed of a processor, voltage/current programming circuits, current shunt, and voltage/current read-back circuits. Additional features can include overcurrent, overvoltage, and short circuit protection, and temperature compensation. Programmable power supplies also come in a variety of forms including modular, board-mounted, wall-mounted, floor-mounted or bench top.

Programmable power supplies can furnish DC, AC, or AC with a DC offset. The AC output can be either single-phase or three-phase. Single-phase is generally used for low-voltage, while three-phase is more common for high-voltage power supplies.

Programmable power supplies are now used in many applications. Some examples include automated equipment testing, crystal growth monitoring, and differential thermal analysis.[4]

Uninterruptible power supply
Main article: Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) takes its power from two or more sources simultaneously. It is usually powered directly from the AC mains, while simultaneously charging a storage battery. Should there be a dropout or failure of the mains, the battery instantly takes over so that the load never experiences an interruption. Such a scheme can supply power as long as the battery charge suffices, e.g., in a computer installation, giving the operator sufficient time to effect an orderly system shutdown without loss of data. Other UPS schemes may use an internal combustion engine or turbine to continuously supply power to a system in parallel with power coming from the AC . The engine-driven generators would normally be idling, but could come to full power in a matter of a few seconds in order to keep vital equipment running without interruption. Such a scheme might be found in hospitals or telephone central offices.

High-voltage power supply

High voltage refers to an output on the order of hundreds or thousands of volts. High-voltage supplies use a linear setup to produce an output voltage in this range.

Additional features available on high-voltage supplies can include the ability to reverse the output polarity along with the use of circuit breakers and special connectors intended to minimize arcing and accidental contact with human hands. Some supplies provide analog inputs (i.e. 0-10V) that can be used to control the output voltage, effectively turning them into high-voltage amplifiers albeit with very limited bandwidth.

Voltage multipliers

Voltage multipliers, as the name implies, are circuits designed to multiply the input voltage. The input voltage may be doubled (voltage doubler), tripled (voltage tripler), quadrupled (voltage quadrupler), etc. Voltage multipliers are also power converters. An AC input is converted to a higher DC output. These circuits allow high voltages to be obtained using a much lower voltage AC source.

Typically, voltage multipliers are composed of half-wave rectifiers, capacitors, and diodes. For example, a voltage tripler consists of three half-wave rectifiers, three capacitors, and three diodes (see Cockcroft Walton Multiplier). Full-wave rectifiers may be used in a different configuration to achieve even higher voltages. Also, both parallel and series configurations are available. For parallel multipliers, a higher voltage rating is required at each consecutive multiplication stage, but less capacitance is required. The voltage capability of the capacitor limits the maximum output voltage.

Voltage multipliers have many applications. For example, voltage multipliers can be found in everyday items like televisions and photocopiers. Even more applications can be found in the laboratory, such as cathode ray tubes, oscilloscopes, and photomultiplier tubes.[5][6]

Power supply applications

Computer power supply
Main article: Computer power supply

A modern computer power supply is a switch with on and off supply designed to convert 110-240 V AC power from the mains supply, to several output both positive (and historically negative) DC voltages in the range + 12V,-12V,+5V,+5VBs and +3.3V. The first generation of computers power supplies were linear devices, but as cost became a driving factor, and weight became important, switched mode supplies are almost universal.

The diverse collection of output voltages also have widely varying current draw requirements, which are difficult to all be supplied from the same switched-mode source. Consequently most modern computer power supplies actually consist of several different switched mode supplies, each producing just one voltage component and each able to vary its output based on component power requirements, and all are linked together to shut down as a group in the event of a fault condition.

Welding power supply
Main article: Welding power supply

Arc welding uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metals in order to join them together through coalescence. The electricity is provided by a welding power supply, and can either be AC or DC. Arc welding typically requires high currents typically between 100 and 350 amps. Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amps, while some applications of spot welding employ currents as high as 60,000 amps for an extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines driving generators. More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors reducing their size and weight.

AC adapter
Switched mode mobile phone charger
Main article: AC adapter

A linear or switched-mode power supply (or in some cases just a transformer) that is built into the top of a plug is known as a "plug pack", "plug-in adapter", "adapter block", "domestic mains adapter" or just "power adapter". Slang terms include "wall wart" and "power brick". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity, or a different plug offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply.

The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer, while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter, the transformer has a magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely turned off unless unplugged.

Because they consume standby power, they are sometimes known as "electricity vampires" and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. Expensive switched-mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors, use powerless MOSFETs, and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to power, for example, a clock, which would otherwise need a battery.

Overload protection

Power supplies often include some type of overload protection that protects the power supply from load faults (e.g., short circuits) that might otherwise cause damage by overheating components or, in the worst case, electrical fire. Fuses and circuit breakers are two commonly used mechanisms for overload protection.[1]


A fuse is a piece of wire, often in a casing that improves its electrical characteristics. If too much current flows, the wire becomes hot and melts. This effectively disconnects the power supply from its load, and the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the fuse is replaced.

There are various types of fuses used in power supplies.

fast blow fuses cut the power as quick as they can
slow blow fuses tolerate more short term overload
wire link fuses are just an open piece of wire, and have poorer overload characteristics than glass and ceramic fuses

Some power supplies use a very thin wire link soldered in place as a fuse.

Circuit breakers

One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. A circuit breaker contains an element that heats, bends and triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Once the element cools, and the problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored.

Thermal cutouts

Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. The advantage is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply continuously. Some such cutouts are self resetting, some are single use only.

Current limiting

Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. The two types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting. The former is common on lab bench PSUs, the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output.

A foldback current limiter reduces the output current to much less than the maximum non-fault current.
[edit] Power conversion

The term "power supply" is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators). A more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another form (such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter. The most common conversion is from AC to DC.

Mechanical power supplies

Flywheels coupled to electrical generators or alternators
Explosively pumped flux compression generators


SCP - Short circuit protection
OPP - Overpower (overload) protection
OCP - Overcurrent protection
OTP - Overtemperature protection
OVP - Overvoltage protection
UVP - Undervoltage protection
UPS - Uninterruptable Power Supply
PSU - Power Supply Unit
SMPSU - Switch-Mode Power Supply Unit

See also

Electricity generation
EHT Power Supply
Mains power around the world
Voltage regulator
Sense (electronics)
Power cord
Wall wart


^ a b c Malmstadt, Enke and Crouch, Electronics and Instrumentation for Scientists, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1981, ISBN 0-8053-6917-1, Chapter 3.
^ Quoting US patent #4937722, High efficiency direct coupled switched mode power supply: The power supply can also include crowbar circuit protecting it against damage by clamping the output to ground if it exceeds a particular voltage. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/4937722-description.html
^ Quoting US Patent #5402059: A problem can occur when loads on the output of a switching power supply become disconnected from the supply. When this occurs, the output current from the power supply becomes reduced (or eliminated if all loads become disconnected). If the output current becomes small enough, the output voltage of the power supply can reach the peak value of the secondary voltage of the transformer of the power supply. This occurs because with a very small output current, the inductor in the L-C low-pass filter does not drop much voltage (if any at all). The capacitor in the L-C low-pass filter therefore charges up to the peak voltage of the secondary of the transformer. This peak voltage is generally considerably higher than the average voltage of the secondary of the transformer. The higher voltage which occurs across the capacitor, and therefore also at the output of the power supply, can damage components within the power supply. The higher voltage can also damage any remaining electrical loads connected to the power supply. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5402059-description.html
^ http://electronic-components.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Electrical_Electronic_Components/Power_Supplies_Conditioners/Programmable_Power_Supplies
^ http://electronic-components.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Electrical_Electronic_Components/Power_Supplies_Conditioners/Voltage_Multipliers
^ Miller, Rex. Electronics The Easy Way, 4th ed. Barron's Educational Series, 2002 p. 88-89.

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