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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Xenacoelomorpha
Subphylum: Acoelomorpha
Classis: Acoela
Familia: Hofsteniidae
Genera: Hofstenia – Hofsteniola – Marcusiola

Hofsteniidae is a family of acoels. This family contains seven species in three genera. [1]

This worm ranges in size from 100 μm for embryos to 500 μm for adults, and exhibits "whole-body regeneration" capability, where entire body parts regenerate when removed from the body.[2] They have a simple nervous system and a bowel sac with no way out.[3]


There are three genera in the family Hofsteniidae.[1]

Hofstenia Bock, 1923
Hofsteniola Papi, 1957
Marcusiola Steinböck, 1966


There are seven species in the family Hofsteniidae.[1]
Name[a] Image Distribution Description
Hofstenia arabiensis Beltagi & Mandura, 1991
Hofstenia atroviridis Bock, 1923
Hofstenia beltagii Steinböck, 1966
Hofstenia miamia Correa, 1960 ('three-banded panther worm')
Hofstenia minuta Palombi, 1928
Hofsteniola pardii Papi 1957
Marcusiola tinga (Marcus, 1957)

A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a different genus.


Seth Tyler (2010). "Hofsteniidae". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L.; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C.; Reddien, Peter W. (2014-05-19). "Whole-Body Acoel Regeneration Is Controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp Signaling". Current Biology. 24 (10): 1107–1113. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.042. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 24768051. S2CID 7639757.
Gehrke, Andrew R.; Neverett, Emily; Luo, Yi-Jyun; Brandt, Alexander; Ricci, Lorenzo; Hulett, Ryan E.; Gompers, Annika; Ruby, J. Graham; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Reddien, Peter W.; Srivastava, Mansi (2019-03-15). "Acoel genome reveals the regulatory landscape of whole-body regeneration". Science. 363 (6432). doi:10.1126/science.aau6173. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 30872491.

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