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Dyscophus antongilii

Dyscophus antongilii (Source)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura

Familia: Microhylidae
Subfamilia: Dyscophinae
Genus: Dyscophus
Species: Dyscophus antongilii

Dyscophus antongilii Grandidier, 1877

Type locality: "baie d'Antongil", Madagascar.

Holotype: MNHNP 1883.2.

Dyscophus insularis var. antongilii Grandidier, 1877
Dyscophus insularis var. pallidus Grandidier, 1877
Dyscophus sanguineus Boettger, 1880
Dyscophus antongilii — Boulenger, 1882
Dyscophus antongilii var. pallidus — Mocquard, 1895
Discophus antongilii — Guibé, 1950
Discophus antongili — Guibé, 1978


Grandidier, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 7, 1: 41.
Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 60.
Frost, D.R. 2021. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. Electronic Database accessible at https://amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. DOI: 10.5531/db.vz.0001 Dyscophus antongilii . Accessed on 16 June 2008.
2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN: Dyscophus antongilii (Near Threatened) Downloaded on 15 June 2008.

Vernacular names
English: Tomato Frog
日本語: アカトマトガエル
ไทย: กบมะเขือเทศ, อึ่งมะเขือเทศ
Dyscophus antongilii, the Madagascar tomato frog, is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae.

1 Description
2 Habitat and distribution
3 Life cycle and ecology
4 Threats and conservation
5 References


Females are much larger than males, reaching up to 10.5 cm and 230 g in weight (6.5 cm and 41 g for males).[2] Tomato frogs live up to their name by possessing a vibrant, orange-red colour.[3] Females have brighter tones of red or orange on their back, with a pale undersurface.[4][unreliable source?] Some individuals also have black spots on the throat.[3] It is thought that the brilliant colours of the tomato frog act as a warning to potential predators that these frogs are toxic;[5] a white substance secreted from the skin acts as a glue to deter predators (such as colubrid snakes) and can produce an allergic reaction in humans.[3][4]
Habitat and distribution

Endemic to Madagascar, tomato frogs are found in the northeast of the island around Antongil Bay (from which they gain their specific name, antongilii),[5] and south to Andevoranto.[4] The exact distribution of this species is unclear however, due to confusion with the closely related D. guineti.[6]

The tomato frog breeds in shallow pools, swamps and areas of slow-moving water. These frogs are found from sea level to elevations of around 200 metres.[4] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, swamps, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, arable land, plantations, rural gardens, urban areas, heavily degraded former forest, ponds, and canals and ditches.[citation needed]
Life cycle and ecology
Tomato Frog at Dählhölzli Animal Park

Tomato frogs breed in February to March following heavy rainfall; the sounds of males calling to attract females can be heard around small water bodies in the dark Malagasy night.[3] Following copulation, females will lay a clutch of 1,000 to 1,500 eggs on the surface of the water.[3] Tadpoles hatch from these small black and white eggs about 36 hours later;[3] they are only around six millimetres long and feed by filter-feeding.[5] Tadpoles undergo metamorphosis into yellow juveniles and this stage is completed around 45 days after the eggs were laid.[3]

Ambushing potential prey, adult tomato frogs feed on small invertebrates,[5] such as beetles, mosquitoes, and flies. When threatened, these frogs can inflate themselves, giving the appearance of greater size.[7]
Threats and conservation

The tomato frog is classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List,[1] and listed on Appendix II of CITES.[8] Numbers of the tomato frog have been declining as a result of habitat degradation and pollution and the over-collection of these brightly coloured amphibians for the pet trade.[4] Collecting activity, and the associated decline in population, was predominately focused near to the town of Maroantsetra.[6] The tomato frog was rapidly included on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in response to this pressure.[6]

Research into captive breeding techniques for the tomato frog has been carried out by Baltimore Zoo in the United States in an effort to boost the currently small and genetically deprived captive population that exists in that country.[4] A consortium of U.S. zoos that form the Madagascar Fauna Group (MFG) have established an exhibit at the Parc Zoologique Ivoloina, Madagascar in an attempt to help educate local people about this attractive member of their natural heritage.[4] Very little is known about the tomato frog and further research into its distribution, behaviour and potential threats is urgently needed before effective conservation measures can be put into place.[6] It is currently listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), but this move has been criticised by some authors as an ineffective strategy and one that has undermined the status of the unlisted D. guineti.[9] Furthermore, research is needed to determine if D. antongilii is in fact a separate species or merely a variant of D. guineti.[6]

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2017). "Dyscophus antongilii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T6937A84159360. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T6937A84159360.en. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-13. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
"Dyscophus antongilii". AmphibiaWeb.
A. Wisnieski; V. Poole; E. Anderson. "Conservation spotlight: Tomato Frogs". University of Michigan.
"Tomato Frog". Woodland Park Zoo. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009.
Arkive profile Archived 2013-12-05 at the Wayback Machine.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. (1992) A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. M. Vences, Cologne.
CITES Appendices

Andreone, F. and Luiselli, L.M. (2003) Conservation priorities and potential threats influencing the hyper-diverse amphibians of Madagascar. Italian Journal of Zoology, 70: 53-63.

This article incorporates text from the ARKive fact-file "Dyscophus antongilii" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the GFDL.

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