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Baeolophus bicolor

Baeolophus bicolor

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida

Familia: Paridae
Genus: Baeolophus
Species: Baeolophus bicolor

Baeolophus bicolor (Linnaeus, 1766)

Parus bicolor (protonym)


Systema Naturae ed.12, 1: 340.

Vernacular names
čeština: Sýkora rezavoboká
Cymraeg: Titw copog cyffredin
dansk: Toppet Topmejse
Deutsch: Indianermeise
English: Tufted Titmouse
Esperanto: Dukolora paruo
español: Herrerillo bicolor
eesti: Tanutihane
suomi: Puistotiainen
français: Mésange bicolore
magyar: Indiáncinege
italiano: Cincia bicolore americana
日本語: エボシガラ
Nederlands: Tweekleurige mees
norsk: Gråduskmeis
Diné bizaad: Haʼaʼaahdę́ę́ʼ diltʼóshii
polski: Sikora dwubarwna
русский: Острохохлая лазоревка
slovenčina: Sýkorka dvojfarebná
svenska: Östgråmes
中文: 美洲凤头山雀

The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) is a small songbird from North America, a species in the tit and chickadee family (Paridae). The black-crested titmouse, found from central and southern Texas southward,[2] was included as a subspecies, but now is considered a separate species, Baeolophus atricristatus.[3]


The genus name Baeolophus translates to small crested and is a compound of the Ancient Greek words βαιός: baiós—"small", and λόφος: "lόphοs"—crest.

The species name bicolor means two-colored.


Length: 5.5–6.3 in (14–16 cm)
Weight: 0.6–0.9 oz (17–26 g)
Wingspan: 7.9–10.2 in (20–26 cm)

These small birds are approximately six inches (15 cm) in length, with a white front, and grey upper body outlined with rust colored flanks. Other characteristics include their black foreheads, and the tufted grey crest on their heads.[5] In juveniles, the black forehead is greatly diminished such that they may be confused with the oak titmouse. Males tend to be larger than females.[6]

The song of the tufted titmouse is usually described as a whistled peter-peter-peter, although this song can vary in approximately 20 notable ways.[7]
Distribution and habitat

Its habitat is deciduous and mixed woods as well as gardens, parks, and shrublands. Although the tufted titmouse is non-migratory and originally native to the Ohio and Mississippi River basins, factors such as bird feeders have caused these birds to occupy a larger amount of territory across the United States and stretching into Ontario and Quebec in Canada.[5][6][8] During the second half of the 20th century and during the 21st, the species' range has been expanding northwards.[4]

From 1966 to 2015 the tufted titmouse population has increased by more than 1.5% per year throughout the northeastern U.S., Michigan, and Wisconsin.[9] The current breeding population is estimated to be approximately 8 million.[4]
Behavior and diet

The tufted titmouse gathers food from the ground and from tree branches, frequently consuming a variety of berries, nuts, seeds, small fruits, insects, and other invertebrates. Caterpillars constitute a major part of its diet during the summer. This species is also a regular visitor to bird feeders.[10] Its normal pattern is to scout a feeder from cover, fly in to take a seed, then fly back to shelter to consume the morsel, though caching is also very common.[11][12]

The titmouse can demonstrate curiosity regarding humans, and sometimes will perch on a window ledge and seem to be peering into the house. It may also cling to the windows and walls of buildings seeking prey in wasp and hornet nests.[citation needed]

Titmice are very vocal and will respond to sounds of agitation in other birds.[4] This species readily forms small flocks, known as troupes or banditries, which often associate with chickadees and other passerines when foraging.[13]

Tufted titmice nest in a hole in a tree, either a natural cavity, a human-made nest box, or sometimes an old woodpecker nest.[14] They line the nest with soft materials, sometimes plucking hair from a live animal such as a dog.[15] If they find snake skin sheddings, they may incorporate pieces into their nest.[16] Eggs measure under 1 inch (2.5 centimetres) long and are white or cream-colored with brownish or purplish spots.[17] Eggs have an incubation period of 12–14 days; titmice will then remain nestlings for 15–16 days.[4]

The lifespan of the tufted titmouse is approximately 2.1 years, although it can live for more than ten years.[18] On average, these birds will have a clutch size of five to seven eggs.[19] Unlike many birds, the offspring of tufted titmice will often stay with their parents during the winter, and even after the first year of their life.[20] Sometimes, a bird born the year before will help its parents raise the next year's young.[21]

Tufted titmice will occasionally hybridize with the black-crested titmouse; the hybridization range is very narrow, however, due to genetic differences.[6]


BirdLife International (2016). "Baeolophus bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22711983A94314102. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22711983A94314102.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Kaufman, Kenn (13 November 2014). "Black-crested Titmouse". National Audubon Society. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
Banks, Richard C.; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J. V.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F. (1 July 2002). "Forty-Third Supplement to The American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds". The Auk. 119 (3): 897–906. doi:10.1093/auk/119.3.897. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
"Tufted Titmouse Identification, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". Retrieved 28 September 2020.
McCommons, James (2003). "Tufted Titmouse". Emmaus. 50: 16. ProQuest 203733124.
"Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) General Biology |". Retrieved 18 February 2022.
Grubb, Thomas C. (1998). Tufted Titmouse. Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811729673.
"Tufted Titmouse" (PDF). Ohio Birds. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
"Tufted & Black-crest. Titmou Baeolophus bicolor/atricrista". Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
Montgomery, Sy. "Titmouse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
"Tufted Titmouse". Audubon. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
"Tufted Titmouse - Diet". National Audubon Society. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
Parnell, Marc (2022). Birds of Connecticut (The Birding Pro's Field Guides). Cleveland, Ohio: Naturalist & Traveler Press. pp. 214–215. ISBN 978-1-954228-27-6.
Laskey, Amelia. "Some Tufted Titmouse Life History" (PDF). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
"Tufted Titmouse, Audubon Field Guide". 13 November 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
Medlin, Elizabeth C.; Risch, Thomas S. (2006). "An Experimental Test Of Snake Skin Use To Deter Nest Predation". The Condor. 108 (4): 963. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2006)108[963:aetoss];2. ISSN 0010-5422. S2CID 86039366.

"The use of sloughed black rat snake Elaphe obsolete skins deters predation of artificial nests in nest boxes in forest near Jonesboro, Craighead County, Arkansas, USA". Conservation Evidence. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009.

"Common Nesting birds - Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)". Nest Watch. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
Elder, William H. (1985). "Survivorship in the Tufted Titmouse" (PDF). Wilson Bull. 97: 517–524 – via ProQuest.
Laskey, Amelia R. (July 1957). "Some Tufted Titmouse Life History" (PDF). Bird-Banding. 28 (3): 135–145. doi:10.2307/4510633. JSTOR 4510633 – via ProQuest.
Pravosudova, Elena V.; Grubb, Thomas C.; Parker, Patricia G.; Doherty, Paul F. (1999). "Patch Size and Composition of Social Groups in Wintering Tufted Titmice". The Auk. 116 (4): 1152–1155. doi:10.2307/4089699. JSTOR 4089699.
"All About Birds - Tufted Titmouse". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 13 October 2019.

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