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Cacatua moluccensis

Cacatua moluccensis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Cacatuidae
Genus: Cacatua
Species Cacatua moluccensis

Cacatua moluccensis (Gmelin, 1788)

Original combination: Psittacus moluccensis (protonym)


Gmelin, J.F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. - pp. i–xii, 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer). DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.545 BHL Reference page. p.331 BHL
IUCN: Cacatua moluccensis (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
беларуская: Какаду малукскі
български: Молукско какаду
brezhoneg: Kaketou Maluku
català: Cacatua de les Moluques
čeština: Kakadu molucký
Cymraeg: Cocatŵ Molwcaidd
dansk: Molukkakadu
Deutsch: Molukkenkakadu
English: Moluccan Cockatoo, Salmon-crested Cockatoo
فارسی: طوطی‌کاکلی گل‌بهی
suomi: Molukkienkakadu
français: Cacatoès à huppe rouge
עברית: קקדו מולוקי
magyar: Malukui kakadu
Bahasa Indonesia: Kakaktua Maluku
italiano: Cacatua delle Molucche, Cacatua crestasalmone
日本語: オオバタン
lietuvių: Molukinė kakadu
latviešu: Moluku kakadu
മലയാളം: സാൽമൺ-ക്രസ്റ്റഡ് കോക്കറ്റൂ
кырык мары: Малуку какаду
Bahasa Melayu: Kakaktua Maluku
Nederlands: Molukkenkaketoe
Diné bizaad: Tsídii yáłtiʼíłgaaí bitsiiyah dinilchíʼígíí
polski: Kakadu molucka
پنجابی: مولکی کوکاٹو
português: Cacatua-das-molucas
русский: Молуккский какаду
slovenščina: Moluški kakadu
svenska: moluckkakadua
українська: Какаду молуцький
中文: 鲑色凤头鹦鹉

The salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis), also known as the Moluccan cockatoo, is a cockatoo endemic to the Seram archipelago in eastern Indonesia. At a height of up to 46–52 centimetres (1.51–1.71 ft) and weight of up to 850 grams (1.87 lb), it is among the largest of the white cockatoos. The female is larger than the male on average. It has white-pink feathers with a definite peachy glow, a slight yellow on the underwing and underside of the tail feathers and a large retractable recumbent crest which it raises when threatened, revealing hitherto concealed bright red-orange plumes to frighten potential attackers. It may also be raised in excitement or in other 'emotional' displays. Some describe the crest as "flamingo-colored". It also has one of the louder calls in the parrot world and in captivity is a capable mimic.

In the wild the salmon-crested cockatoo inhabits lowland forests below 1000 m. The diet consists mainly of seeds, nuts and fruit, as well as coconuts. There is additional evidence that they eat insects off the ground, and pet Moluccan cockatoos have tested positive for anemia if their diet does not include enough protein.

Distribution and Habitat

The salmon-crested cockatoo is endemic to the Seram archipelago in eastern Indonesia and has been introduced to the Hawaiian island of Oahu, where a small population has become established.[3] Although they have been observed in the wild in Puerto Rico, they are probably the result of escaped pets, and no reproduction has been recorded.[4]
Salmon-crested cockatoo in hawaii.png
Status in the Wild

The salmon-crested cockatoo is a vulnerable species,[5] and has been listed on appendix I of CITES since 1989, which makes commercial international trade in wild-caught birds prohibited. Trade in captive bred birds is legal only with appropriate CITES certification. Numbers have declined due to illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade and habitat loss. During the height of the trapping of this species over 6,000 birds were being removed from the wild per year. It has a stronghold in Manusela National Park on Seram, although even today some illegal trapping continues.
At Kuala Lumpur Bird Park

The salmon-crested cockatoo can no longer be imported into the United States because it is listed on the Wild Bird Conservation Act. However, they are being bred in captivity. They are popular for their beauty and trainability (which makes them popular in trained bird shows).

The salmon-crested cockatoo is widely considered to be one of the most demanding parrots to keep as a pet due to their high intelligence, large size, potential noise level (it is one of the loudest birds in the world, with calls up to 129 decibels),[6] and need to chew. Moluccan cockatoos require a very large and very sturdy cage or aviary. Salmon-crested cockatoos are highly social and pets can be extremely cuddly, affectionate, and gentle birds. This can lead to problems if a young cockatoo is spoiled with a great deal of attention and cuddling when young and does not get the opportunity to learn to play with toys, forage, or otherwise entertain itself.

Salmon-crested cockatoos require a great deal of attention and activity to remain healthy and well-adjusted. Attention and training from human caregivers is important in keeping them occupied, as are chewable toys and foraging toys that require them to work for their food. As with most large cockatoos, the salmon-crested cockatoo may develop health and behavioural problems such as feather-plucking and aggression if not provided with the appropriate environment, attention and enrichment opportunities.

In captivity, the salmon-crested cockatoo has been known to live for an extremely long time, with a captive individual mentioned in a 2011 paper having lived to the age of 92 years.[7]

Moluccan cockatoos breed once a year, usually between December and March, when vegetation growth is at its peak and food is readily available.


BirdLife International (2016). "Cacatua moluccensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684784A93046425. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684784A93046425.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 14 January 2022.
"Salmon-crested Cockatoo - eBird".
Falcón, Wilfredo; Tremblay, Raymond L. (30 October 2018). "From the cage to the wild: introductions of Psittaciformes to Puerto Rico". PeerJ. 6: e5669. doi:10.7717/peerj.5669. PMC 6214232. PMID 30397538.
"Status of Cacatua moluccensis". [CITES CITES] database. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013.
"The World's Loudest Animals". 21 June 2018.
Young, A. M.; Hobson, E. A.; Lackey, L. B.; Wright, T. F. (2012). "Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots". Animal Conservation. 15 (1): 28–53. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00477.x. PMC 3289156. PMID 22389582.

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