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Chlorornis riefferii

Chlorornis riefferii (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Chlorornis
Species: Chlorornis riefferii
Subspecies: C. r. boliviana – C. r. celata – C. r. diluta – C. r. elegans – C. r. riefferii

Chlorornis riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840)

Type locality: Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia.


Tanagra riefferii (protonym)


Boissonneau, A.. 1840. Oiseaux nouveaux ou peu connus de Santa-Fé de Bogota. Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuviérienne 3: 2–8. BHL Reference page. Original description p. 4 BHL

Vernacular names
English: Grass-green tanager
español: Tangara lorito
日本語: ワカクサフウキンチョウ

The grass-green tanager (Chlorornis riefferii) is a small South America bird in the tanager family Thraupidae. It is the only member of the genus Chlorornis.

The grass-green tanager is 20 cm in length and weighs 53g. It lives in and around subtropical and temperate forests in the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru at elevations of 1500–3350 m.

It is seen in pairs or in groups of 3-6 individuals. It forages mostly on upper half of short trees and eats fruits and insects. It is known to perch almost horizontally. Its nest is made of mosses and ferns, and its eggs are gray with light purple-grey dots.

The grass-green tanager was formally described in 1840 by the French ornithologist Auguste Boissonneau from a specimen collected near Bogotá in Colombia. He coined the binomial name Tanagra riefferii.[2][3] The species is now the only member of the genus Chlorornis that was introduced in 1850 by the German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach.[4][5] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek khlōros meaning "green" and ornis meaning "bird". The specific epithet was chosen to honour the collector Gabriel Rieffer.[6] The grass-green tanager has a sister relationship to the genus Cnemathraupis containing the black-chested mountain tanager and the golden-backed mountain tanager.[7]

Five subspecies are recognised:[5]

C. r. riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) – Colombia and Ecuador
C. r. dilutus Zimmer, JT, 1947 – north Peru
C. r. elegans (Tschudi, 1844) – central Peru
C. r. celatus Zimmer, JT, 1947 – south Peru
C. r. bolivianus (Berlepsch, 1912) – west Bolivia


BirdLife International (2018). "Chlorornis riefferii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22722150A132012843. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22722150A132012843.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Boissonneau, Auguste (1840). "Oiseaux nouveaux ou peu connus de Santa-Fé de Bogota". Revue Zoologique (in French). 3: 2–18 [3].
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 252.
Reichenbach, Ludwig (1850). Avium Systema Naturale (in German). Dresden and Leipzig: Friedrich Hofmeister. Plate LXXVII. For the publication date see: Dickinson, E.C.; Overstreet, L.K.; Dowsett, R.J.; Bruce, M.D. (2011). Priority! The Dating of Scientific Names in Ornithology: a Directory to the literature and its reviewers. Northampton, UK: Aves Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-9568611-1-5.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Tanagers and allies". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 103, 336. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006. PMID 24583021.

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