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Mexican Woodnymph (14544829494)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis: Sarcopterygii
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Apodiformes

Familia: Trochilidae
Subfamilia: Trochilinae
Genus: Eupherusa
Species: Eupherusa ridgwayi

Eupherusa ridgwayi (Nelson, 1900)

Type locality: San Sebastián, Jalisco, Mexico.


Thalurania ridgwayi (protonym)


Auk 17 p. 262 BHL


IUCN: Eupherusa ridgwayi (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
català: Colibrí nimfa de Mèxic
Cymraeg: Nymff goed Mecsico
English: Mexican Woodnymph
español: Zafiro Mexicano
فارسی: چوب‌پری مکزیکی
français: Dryade du Mexique
magyar: Mexikói erdeinimfa
Nederlands: Mexicaanse bosnimf
svenska: jaliscokolibri

The Mexican woodnymph (Eupherusa ridgwayi) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae endemic to western Mexico. It lives in subtropical or tropical moist lowland/foothill forest and plantations, feeding on flower nectar and insects. Mexican woodnymphs are vulnerable, threatened by habitat loss through deforestation.

The Mexican woodnymph was formerly placed in the genus Thalurania that contains other species with "woodnymph" in their English names. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2014 found that Thalurania was non-monophyletic and that the Mexican woodnymph is closely related to species in the genus Eupherusa.[3] Based on this result the Mexican woodnymph is now placed in Eupherusa.[4] The Mexican woodnymph is monotypic: there are no recognised subspecies.[4]

Mexican woodnymphs are small birds, generally 9-10 centimeters long. Females weigh around 3.5 grams and males weigh from 3.5 to 4.2 grams. Males have a straight black bill, mostly green body, a dull green chest, a blue-black forked tail, and an indigo crown. Females are similar, mostly green with darker green tail and wings, a light gray chest. They lack the characteristic indigo crown, instead have a white spot behind their eyes and green disks on the sides of their chest.[5]

One known vocalization consists of an irregular series of 2-4 quick notes. Their call has been described as a "liquid rattle".[5]
Distribution and habitat

Mexican woodnymphs live exclusively in the northern mountains of western Mexico, with habitat in the states of Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima.[6][7] They are not migratory and spend the whole year in their small range. They are the northernmost species of their genus.[5]

Although there is little known of the specific habitat requirements for Mexican woodnymphs, we are aware that they reside in humid forests, canyons and foothills at elevations of 250–1200 meters.[5] They can be found at the forest and open woodland,[7] and may inhabit some coffee plantations.

Mexican woodnymphs breed in February and March.[5] They are sexually dimorphic, and it is believed that male hummingbirds are sexually selected for based on their feather arrangement and coloring, resulting in a wide range of colors and looks.
Food and feeding

Mexican woodnymphs are nectivorous and insectivorous. They feed primarily on flower nectar from a variety of flowering plants, including: Rubiaceae, Zingiberaceae and epiphytes. They also eat arthropods by catching them in the air or eating them off vegetation.[5]
Conservation status

Mexican woodnymphs are listed as vulnerable[8] due to habitat loss.[9] As evident from their restricted range, they are dependent on the forest health of western Mexico, where deforestation is threatening the habitat. Unfortunately, since there is little information on their habitat needs and natural history, there is insufficient data on how to protect this species.

BirdLife International (2012). "Thalurania ridgwayi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
"Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
McGuire, J.; Witt, C.; Remsen, J.V.; Corl, A.; Rabosky, D.; Altshuler, D.; Dudley, R. (2014). "Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds". Current Biology. 24 (8): 910–916. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.016. PMID 24704078.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Hummingbirds". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
Peterson, A. Townsend; Boesman, Peter F. D. (2020-03-04). Del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David; De Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Mexican Woodnymph (Thalurania ridgwayi)". Birds of the World. doi:10.2173/bow.mexwoo1.01.
Velásquez, Armando Valdés. "Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography of the Hummingbird Genus Thalurania GOULD, 1848 (Aves: Trochilidae)". Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich- ….
Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J. V.; Storer, Robert W. (1993). "Thirty-Ninth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds". The Auk. 110 (3): 675–682. doi:10.2307/4088450. ISSN 0004-8038. JSTOR 4088450.
Arizmendi, M. C.; Berlanga, H.; Rodríguez-Flores, C.; Vargas-Canales, V.; Montes-Leyva, L.; Lira, R. (October 2016). "Hummingbird Conservation in Mexico: The Natural Protected Areas System". Natural Areas Journal. 36 (4): 366–376. doi:10.3375/043.036.0404. ISSN 0885-8608. S2CID 88558681.
BirdLife International (2020). "Mexican Woodnymph". DataZone.

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