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Glareola pratincola (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Glareolidae
Subfamilia: Glareolinae
Genus: Glareola
Species: Glareola pratincola
Subspecies: G. p. fuelleborni – G. p. pratincola

Glareola pratincola (Linnaeus, 1766)

Hirundo pratincola (protonym)


Systema Naturae ed.12: 345.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Rooivlerksprinkaanvoël
العربية: أبو اليسر
azərbaycanca: Haçaquyruq cüllüt
български: Кафявокрил огърличник
brezhoneg: Glareell daneskell ruz
català: Perdiu de mar europea
čeština: Ouhorlík stepní
Cymraeg: Cwtiad-wennol torchog
dansk: Rødvinget Braksvale
Deutsch: Rotflügel-Brachschwalbe
Ελληνικά: Νεροχελίδονο
English: Collared Pratincole
Esperanto: Kolumglareolo
español: Canastera común
eesti: Kõnnu-pääsujooksur
euskara: Pratinkola
suomi: Pääskykahlaaja
føroyskt: Vaðtritla
français: Glaréole à collier
Gaeilge: Pratancól muinceach
galego: Perdiz do mar
עברית: שדמית
hrvatski: Riđokrila pješčarka
magyar: Székicsér
հայերեն: Ծիծառակտցար մարգագետնային
íslenska: Þernutrítill
italiano: Pernice di mare
日本語: ニシツバメチドリ
ქართული: მერცხალა
қазақша: Шабындық қарақасы
lietuvių: Pievinė kregždūnė
latviešu: Brūnspārnu bezdelīgtārtiņš
македонски: Блатна ластовица
монгол: Нугын хөгт
Malti: Perniċjotta
Nederlands: Vorkstaartplevier
norsk: Brakksvale
polski: Żwirowiec łąkowy
português: Perdiz-do-mar
rumantsch: Glariel da l'ala cotschna
română: Ciovlică ruginie
русский: Луговая тиркушка
sardu: Caitta
davvisámegiella: Spálfogálán
slovenčina: Prieložník stepný
slovenščina: Rjava komatna tekica
shqip: Dallëndyshe deti
српски / srpski: Zijavac - Зијaвац
svenska: Rödvingad vadarsvala
Kiswahili: Bwabwaja
தமிழ்: Karuvalaya Tholkuruvi
Türkçe: Bataklık kırlangıcı
українська: Дерихвіст лучний
中文: 领燕鸻
isiZulu: iWamba

The collared pratincole (Glareola pratincola), also known as the common pratincole or red-winged pratincole, is a wader in the pratincole family, Glareolidae. As with other pratincoles, it is native to the Old World.[2]

The collared pratincole was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1766 in the twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae. He placed it with the swallows and swifts in the genus Hirundo and coined the binomial name Hirundo pratincola.[3] The collared pratincole is now placed in the genus Glareola that was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[4][5] The genus name is a diminutive of Latin glarea, "gravel", referring to a typical nesting habitat for pratincoles. The species name pratincola means an inhabitant of meadows, from Latin pratum, prati, "meadow" and incola, "inhabitant", from incolere, "to inhabit".[6]

Two subspecies are recognised:[5]

Glareola pratincola pratincola, (Linnaeus, 1766) – southern Europe & North Africa to south Pakistan
Glareola pratincola fuelleborni, Neumann, 1910 – sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal to central Ethiopia and south Somalia south to east South Africa (includes erlangeri and riparia)


This pratincole is 24–28 cm (9.4–11.0 in) long with a 60–70 cm (24–28 in) wingspan. It has short legs, long pointed wings, a long forked tail, and a short bill, which is an adaptation to aerial feeding. The back and head are brown, and the wings are brown with darker flight feathers. The belly is white. The underwings are chestnut, but look dark below.

Very good views are needed to distinguish this species from other pratincoles, such as the black-winged pratincole and the oriental pratincole, which may occur in its range. The latter species also has a chestnut underwing, but is shorter-tailed.
Distribution and habitat

The collared pratincole is a bird of open country, and is often seen near water in the evening, hawking for insects. It is found in the warmer parts of Europe, southwest Asia and Africa. It is migratory, wintering in tropical Africa, and is rare north of the breeding range.

Pratincoles are unusual among waders in that they typically hunt their insect prey on the wing like swallows, although they can also feed on the ground.
In flight, showing dark rufous underwing coverts and deeply forked tail
Clutch in nest
In Turkey

The nesting is colonial. The nest is a shallow scrape on open ground often near water. The clutch is 2–4 eggs which have a cream background with black or dark brown blotches, spots or streaks. On average the eggs measure 32 mm × 24 mm (1.26 in × 0.94 in) and weigh 10 g (0.35 oz). Beginning after the last egg is laid, they are incubated by both parents and hatch synchronously after 17-19 days. The young are precocial and nidifugous. They leave the nest after 2–3 days and are then cared for by both parents who feed them with regurgitated food for the first week. The young fledge when they are 25–30 days of age.[7]
Status and conservation

The collared pratincole is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

BirdLife International (2017). "Glareola pratincola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22694127A120026910. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22694127A120026910.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Peter (2010). Birds of Africa south of the Sahara (2nd ed.). Cape Town: Struik Nature. p. 156. ISBN 9781770076235.
Linnaeus, Carl (1766). Systema naturae : per regna tria natura, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1, Part 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 345.
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections, Genres, Especes & leurs Variétés (in French and Latin). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1, p. 48, Vol. 5, p. 141.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (August 2022). "Sandpipers, snipes, Crab-plover, coursers". IOC World Bird List Version 12.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 174, 315–6. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.

Cramp 1983, pp. 105–106.


Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1983). "Glareola pratincola Collared pratincole". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. III: Waders to Gulls. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 99–107. ISBN 978-0-19-857506-1.

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