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Larus glaucoides (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Lari

Familia: Laridae
Subfamilia: Larinae
Genus: Larus
Species: Larus glaucoides
Subspecies: L. g. glaucoides – L. g. kumlieni – L. g. thayeri

Larus glaucoides B. Meyer, 1822
Primary references

Meyer, B. 1822. Zusätze und Berichtigungen zu Meyers und Wolfs Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde 3: VI, 1–264. BHL Reference page. : 197

Vernacular names
asturianu: Gavilueta d'Islandia
brezhoneg: Gouelan arc'hlas
català: Gavina polar
čeština: Racek polární
Cymraeg: Gwylan yr Arctig
dansk: Hvidvinget Måge
Deutsch: Polarmöwe
Ελληνικά: Ισλανδόγλαρος
English: Iceland Gull
Esperanto: Blankflugila mevo
español: Gaviota groenlandesa
eesti: Polaarkajakas
euskara: Gavinot polar
suomi: Grönlanninlokki
føroyskt: Lítil valmási
français: Goéland arctique
Gaeilge: Faoileán Íoslannach
Gàidhlig: Faoileag Liath
galego: Gaivota polar
Gaelg: Foillan Loughlinagh
עברית: שחף איסלנדי
magyar: Sarki sirály
íslenska: Bjartmáfur
italiano: Gabbiano d'Islanda
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Naujaq
日本語: アイスランドカモメ
kalaallisut: Naaja
한국어: 작은흰갈매기
lietuvių: Mažasis poliarinis kiras
latviešu: Mazā polārkaija
Nederlands: Kleine burgemeester
norsk nynorsk: Grønlandsmåse
norsk: Grønlandsmåke
polski: Mewa polarna
português: Gaivota-polar
română: Pescăruş cu aripi albe
русский: Полярная чайка
davvisámegiella: Vilgessoadjeskávli
slovenčina: Čajka bielokrídla
slovenščina: Polarni galeb
svenska: Vitvingad trut
Türkçe: Grönland Martısı
中文: 冰岛鸥

Larus glaucoides egg

Larus glaucoides egg

The Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides) is a medium-sized gull that breeds in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not in Iceland (as its name suggests), where it is only seen during winter. The genus name is from Latin larus, which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name glaucoides denotes its resemblance to Larus glaucus, a synonym of Larus hyperboreus, the glaucous gull; -oides is Ancient Greek and means "resembling".[2]


The Iceland gull is a medium-sized gull, although relatively slender and light in weight. In length, it can measure from 50 to 64 cm (20 to 25 in), wingspan is from 115 to 150 cm (45 to 59 in), and weight is from 480 to 1,100 g (1.06 to 2.43 lb). Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 37.9 to 44.3 cm (14.9 to 17.4 in), the bill is 3.6 to 5.4 cm (1.4 to 2.1 in), and the tarsus is 4.9 to 6.7 cm (1.9 to 2.6 in).[3][4][5] It is smaller and thinner-billed than the very large glaucous gull, and is usually smaller than the herring gull. It takes four years to reach maturity.
Young Kumlien's gull in New York

The call is a "laughing" cry like the herring gull, but higher pitched.

Eggs, collection Museum Wiesbaden

It is migratory, wintering from in the North Atlantic as far south as the British Isles and northernmost states of the eastern United States, as well as in the interior of North America as far west as the western Great Lakes. It is much scarcer in Europe than the similar glaucous gull.

This species breeds colonially or singly on coasts and cliffs, making a nest lined with grass, moss, or seaweed on the ground or cliff. Normally, two or three light brown eggs are laid. They breed in Canada and Greenland, but not in Iceland.

Like most Larus gulls, these are omnivores, eating fish, molluscs, offal, scraps, and eggs. They forage while flying, picking up food at or just below the water's surface, and they also feed while walking or swimming. Their scavenging habits lead them to frequent garbage dumps, sewage outlets, and places where fish are cleaned.
Taxonomy and systematics

The American taxon of Iceland gull by the American Ornithological Society as of 2017 considers the following as subspecies:[6]

Kumlien's gull, L. g. kumlieni
Thayer's gull, L. g. thayeri

The nominate subspecies, L. g. glaucoides, is very pale in all plumage, with absolutely no melanin in the tips of the primaries in adult plumage. Adults are pale grey above, with a yellowish-green bill. Immatures are very pale grey; the bill is more extensively dark than with glaucous gull, and lacks pink.


BirdLife International. 2019. Larus glaucoides (amended version of 2018 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T22729877A155595584. Downloaded on 13 April 2021.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 174, 219. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Olsen, Klaus Malling; Larsson, Hans (2004). Gulls of North America, Europe, and Asia. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691119977.
Harrison, Peter (1991). Seabirds: An Identification Guide. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-395-60291-1.
Dunning, John B., Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
Chesser, R. Terry; Burns, Kevin J.; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, John L.; Kratter, Andrew W; Lovette, Irby J; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J.V. Jr; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin (2017). "Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk. 134 (3): 751–773. doi:10.1642/AUK-17-72.1.

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