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Ramphocelus nigrogularis (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Ramphocelus
Species: Ramphocelus nigrogularis

Ramphocelus nigrogularis (Spix, 1825)

Type locality: “ad flumen Solimoëns in sylvis pagi St. Pauli” = São Paulo de Olivença, River Solimões, Brazil.


Tanagra nigrogularis (protonym)


Spix, J.B. von 1825. Avium species novae, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae regis. Suscepto. Collegit et descripsit Dr. J. B. de Spix. Tomus 2. 85 pp. + 115 tt. Illustrations: Matthias Schmidt. Ed. Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni. Monachii. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.63182 Original description p. 35 BHL Reference page. Illustration pl. 47 fig.1,2 BHL

Vernacular names
English: Masked Crimson Tanager
español: Tangara enmascarada
português: Pipira-de-máscara

The masked crimson tanager (Ramphocelus nigrogularis) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical swamps and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

The masked crimson tanager was first described by German naturalist Johann Baptist von Spix in 1825. Its species name is derived from the Latin words niger "black", and gularis "throated". It is one of nine species of brightly coloured tanagers of the genus Ramphocelus. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates its closest relative is the crimson-backed tanager (R. dimidiatus), and the two split around 800,000 years ago.[3]

Measuring 18 to 19 cm (7–7.5 in) in length, the adult male has a black face, wings, mantle, belly and tail, and is a bright red elsewhere in its plumage. The bill has a silver sheen.[4] The female resembles the male but has a brownish belly and duller plumage overall,[5] while the juvenile is duller still.[4] It resembles the vermilion tanager (Calochaetes coccineus) but the latter lives at higher altitudes.[6]

The masked crimson tanager makes a high-pitched single note variously transcribed as tchlink or "tink", and a simple melody often sung at dawn.[4][5]

The masked crimson tanager is found across Amazonia and is abundant. It prefers to dwell near bodies of water such as lakes, swamps or rivers, generally at altitudes below 600 m (2000 ft).[5] Masked crimson tanagers move about in troops of 10 to 12 birds.[4] The species can form mixed species flocks with the silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo).[5] It is frugivorous (fruit-eating).[citation needed]

The masked crimson tanager has been speculated to engage in reverse sexual dominance behavior similar to their congener pair, the silver-beaked tanager. The masked crimson tanagers, who belong to the passerine bird order exhibit this behavior similar to that of their cousin. However, there is no observable evidence to support the hypothesis that the masked crimson tanager are among the rare and unexplained phenomenon of reverse sexual dominance. Under normal circumstances, passerine species of birds exemplify a default hierarchy of dominance wherein larger, heavier birds tend to dominate the smaller, lighter birds and males tend to dominate females. Between masked crimson tanagers and the silver-beaked tanager, individuals engage in a form of interference competition, also known as competition by resource defense, when partitioning resource-rich habitats. The masked crimson tanager prefer to inhabit sites close to or around oxbow lakes, a common geographical feature of their native Amazon biome. They demonstrate aggression while defending the more productive areas around the lakes, causing the silver-beaked tanager to occupy the riparian forest. The masked crimson tanagers are competitively superior and dominate most interspecies interactions with their cousin.[7]

The masked crimson tanager breeds in between the dry and wet seasons of the seasonal tropics that they occupy. This species of tanager participates in cooperative breeding, which involves the communal care and protection of the offspring. For the masked crimson tanager, as well as other lake-margin bird species, cooperative breeding may be favored due to high population density and scarcity of habitable space.[8]

In neotropical forests, the masked crimson tanager congregates in mixed flocks much like those seen in flycatchers and vireos. The degree to which the masked crimson tanager forms mixed flocks correlates with the relative extent to which broad-leafed canopy make up the composition of the neotropical forest.[9]

Like most tanagers, masked crimson tanagers are mainly frugivorous, supplementing their fruit diets with small insects such as flying termites. Their insectivorous tendency is driven by the periodic cycle of the breeding of termites, which produce winged males and females when sexually active. These termites are richer in nutrients than normal wood termites and therefore it may become more ecologically sound for the masked crimson tanager to feed on these insects to supplement their existing diets.[10]

Masked crimson tanagers may also feed on the nectar of flowers as part of their diet. They have not been observed opening flowers themselves, only feeding on nectar from flowers already been opened by some other species of bird or insect. They feed on flowers of Erythrina fusca plants without damaging them, while simultaneously contacting the anthers of the flowers with their heads, thus making them effective pollinators.[11]

Ramphocelus nigrogularis-20030906.jpg
Ramphocelus nigrogularis-20030523.jpg


BirdLife International (2018). "Ramphocelus nigrogularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22722497A132154155. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22722497A132154155.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Philip Lutley Sclater: Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum, vol. XI, 1886, p. 171
Burns, Kevin J.; Racicot, Rachel A. (2009). "Molecular phylogenetics of a clade of lowland tanagers: implications for avian participation in the great American interchange" (PDF). Auk. 126 (3): 635–48. doi:10.1525/auk.2009.08195. S2CID 32907534. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2011.
Robert S. Ridgely; Guy Tudor (2009). Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America: The Passerines. University of Texas Press. p. 614. ISBN 978-0-292-71979-8.
Schulenberg, Thomas S. (2007). Birds of Peru. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 542–43. ISBN 978-0-691-13023-1.
Steven L. Hilty; Bill Brown (1986). A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press. p. 624. ISBN 0-691-08372-X.
Robinson, Scott K. (1997). "Birds of a Peruvian Oxbow Lake: Populations, Resources, Predation, and Social Behavior". Ornithological Monographs. 48 (Studies in Neotropical Ornithology Honoring Ted Parker): 613–639. doi:10.2307/40157558. JSTOR 40157558.
Angehr, George R.; Aucca, Constantino; Christian, Daniel G.; Pequeño, Tatiana; Siegel, James (2001). "Structure and Composition of the Bird Communities of the Lower Urubamba Region, Peru". Urubamba: The Biodiversity of a Peruvian Rainforest. p. 163.
Eisenmann, Eugene (1961). "Favorite Foods of Neotropical Birds: Flying Termites and Cecropia Catkins" (PDF). The Auk. 78 (4): 636–638. doi:10.2307/4082198. JSTOR 4082198.
Cotton, Peter A. (2001). "The Behavior and Interactions of Birds Visiting Erythrina fusca Flowers in the Colombian Amazon". Biotropica. 33 (4): 662–669. doi:10.1646/0006-3606(2001)033[0662:tbaiob];2. JSTOR 3593168.

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