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Acerodon jubatus

Acerodon jubatus (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Cladus: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohors: Theria
Cohors: Eutheria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Ordo: Chiroptera
Subordo: Yinpterochiroptera

Familia: Pteropodidae
Subfamilia: Pteropodinae
Tribus: Pteropodini
Subtribus: Pteropodina
Genus: Acerodon
Species: A. jubatus
Subspecies: A. j. jubatus – A. j. lucifer – A. j. mindanensis

Acerodon jubatus (Eschscholtz, 1831)

Type locality: Philippines, Mindanao, Sarangani, Maitum.

Eschscholtz. 1831. Zool. Atlas, Part 4: 1.
IUCN: Acerodon jubatus (Endangered)
Acerodon jubatus in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
Acerodon jubatus – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Goldkronen-Flughund
English: Giant Golden-crowned Flying Fox, Golden-capped Fruit Bat
español: Zorro volador filipino
français: Renard volant des Philippines
magyar: Aranykoronás repülőkutya
Nederlands: Filipijnse vliegende hond
polski: Acerodon grzywiasty
中文: 鬃毛利齒狐蝠


The Giant golden-crowned flying-fox (Acerodon jubatus), also known as the Golden-capped fruit bat, is a rare fruit bat and considered the largest known bat in the world. The species is endangered and is currently facing the possibility of extinction due to poachers and food hunters. They are endemic to the Philippines, where they live in the caves and rainforests of Maitum, Sarangani.

The flying foxes are so named because of their facial likeness to a fox. The Giant Golden-crowned Flying-fox is a prime example for this name. They have a long pointed snout compared to the Microchiroptera, and small ears that form an unbroken ring, giving them the appearance of a fox with wings. The Giant Golden Crowned Flying fox gets its species name from the golden fur around the head, in sharp contrast to the black body. Like all other fruit bats, they have no tail. They are considered the largest of all bats, with a wingspan average of 1.5 meters (5 feet) and weighing up to 1.2 kg (2.6 lb), though the Large Flying Fox has a greater wingspan.


The Giant Golden-crowned Flying-fox is confined to the rainforests of the Philippines. They have been found in many different areas of rainforest from sea-level to montane forests. Acerodon jubatus prefer uninhabited areas. A 2005 study found none in inhabited areas. [2] The same study also revealed that these bats use river corridors more than originally thought, because the fig trees located near rivers are the bats main source of food. Mildenstein also states that they do like to be close to agricultural fields but only in undisturbed forest areas. In another study Stier shows that this species is a forest obligate species, staying in the forest a majority of the time. Since this is a forest obligate species, conservation will require the preservation of forest areas. Human encroachment on the bat's habitat in forest and lowland areas is a major factor in the species endangered conservation status. [3]


The Giant Golden Crowned Flying fox is primarily nocturnal, and can travel at least 40 km (25 miles) in one night searching for food. One amazing behavior of this bat is that it is a pollinator and seed disperser for many fruit trees in the Philippines. Another interesting fact about this bat and a possible reason it lives near water is that it uses water for grooming [2]. When they are flying the corridors they can swoop down and get water on their wings that can be later used for grooming and cleaning. In turn this cleaning will help the bats stay cleaner and hopefully clear from predators.


They eat primarily figs, though will take other fruit if figs are unavailable. They have been reported to eat cultivated fruit, but this is relatively rare. Other fruits that may be eaten include: puhutan, lamio, tangisang bayawak bankal and strangler figs.[4] They are very important to the rainforests of the Philippines. Known as "The Silent Planter", they often drop seeds from flying or release them in their droppings. This helps forest regrow, and without the Giant Golden Crowned Flying fox, the Rainforest would likely die out without a distributor for seeds.


Little is known about their reproduction. They appear to have two breeding seasons, but females only become pregnant during one of them. They typically give birth to only one pup. Females reach sexual maturity at two years.


When fruit bats were very common in the Philippines, the Giant Golden Crowned Flying fox and the Large Flying fox would make colonies together along with Malayan Flying Foxes (Pteropus vampyrus)[5], reportedly numbering over 150,000 individuals. It is this roosting behavior that made them so easy to hunt, but also helps them keep warm and potentially free from predators. [6]


The Giant Golden Crowned Flying-fox is under threat from deforestation and has completely disappeared from many smaller islands and some larger islands, such as Cebu, due to deforestation. They are also commercially hunted for meat in some areas.The local government of Maitum, Sarangani in the Philippines has organized a campaign to save this rare species from extinction.

In the Philippines and throughout the world little is known about this species which makes it hard to manage, but since this species is in decline many people and agencies want to see the species make a comeback and thrive in the wilds of the Philippines. The Subic Bay region of the Philippines plays host to a lot of the research on this species. Subic Bay is a 14,000 acre protection area that is managed by individuals who want to preserve the species.

A few agencies are promoting the conservation of this species such as Bat Conservation International, Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife fund, Lubee Foundation and others.[2] These agencies are promoting conservation in various ways such as research funding and education worldwide as well as locally.

The IUCN states that there is currently a captive breeding program underway, which is a step in the right direction [2]


1. ^ Mildenstein, T., Cariño,A., Paul, S., Heaney, L., Alviola, P., Duya, A., Stier, S., Pedregosa, S., Lorica, R., Ingle, N., Balete, D., Garcia, J.J., Gonzalez, J.C., Ong, P., Rosell-Ambal, G. & Tabaranza, B. (2008). Acerodon jubatus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 13 January 2009.
2. ^ a b c d Mildenstein, Tammy.; Stier, S; Nuevodiego, C; Mills, L (2005a). "Habitat selection of endangered and endemic large flying-foxes in Subic Bay, Philippines". Biological Conservation 126: 93–102. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.001.
3. ^ Stier, Sam. (2005). "Dietary Habitat of the World's Largest Bats:The Philippine Flying Foxes, Acerodon Jubatus and Pteropus Vampyrus Lanensis.". Journal of Mammalogy: 719–28.
4. ^ Mickleburgh, S.P., Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (1992). "Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for their Conservation". IUCN.
5. ^ Rabor, D.S. (1986). Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna.
6. ^ Macdonald, D.W. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Mammals.

* Stier, Sam; Mildenstein, Tammy L. (2005c). "Dietary Habitat of the World's Largest Bats:The Philippine Flying Foxes, Acerodon Jubatus and Pteropus Vampyrus Lanensis.". Journal of Mammalogy 86: 719–28. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)086[0719:DHOTWL2.0.CO;2].

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