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Python regius

Python regius (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Henophidia

Familia: Pythonidae
Subfamilia: Pythoninae
Genus: Python
Species: Python regius

Python regius (Shaw, 1802)

Type locality: "Gambia"

Holotype: BMNH IV 3. 3a.

Boa regia Shaw, 1802: 347
Python belii Gray, 1842: 44
Python regius — Duméril & Bibron, 1844: 412
Python regius — Boulenger, 1893: 88
Python regius — Schmidt, 1923: 55
Python regius — McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré, 1999: 179
Shireenhoserus regius — Hoser, 2004


Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 1 + 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313–615
Austin, J.D. & Gregory, P.T. 1999. Relative roles of thermal and chemical cues in the investigative behavior of prey in colubrid (Elaphe guttata and Lampropeltis getulus) and Boid (Python regius) snakes. Herpetological Natural History 6(1): 47–50 [1998]
Kölpin, T. 2007. Anschaffung von Königspythons (Python regius). Reptilia (Münster) 12(1): 87–89
Python regius (Shaw, 1802) – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Python regius at the New Reptile Database. Accessed on 21 Jule 2009.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Грымучнікі сапраўдныя
Deutsch: Königspython
English: Ball python
magyar: Királypiton
日本語: ボールニシキヘビ
lietuvių: Karališkasis Pitonas
polski: Pyton królewski
ไทย: งูหลามบอล, บอลไพธอน
Türkçe: Top piton
中文: 球蟒

The ball python (Python regius), also called the royal python, is a python species native to West and Central Africa, where it lives in grasslands, shrublands and open forests. This nonvenomous constrictor is the smallest of the African pythons, growing to a maximum length of 182 cm (72 in).[2] The name "ball python" refers to its tendency to curl into a ball when stressed or frightened.[3]


Boa regia was the scientific name proposed by George Shaw in 1802 for a pale variegated python from an indistinct place in Africa.[4] The generic name Python was proposed by François Marie Daudin in 1803 for non-venomous flecked snakes.[5] Between 1830 and 1849, several generic names were proposed for the same zoological specimen described by Shaw, including Enygrus by Johann Georg Wagler, Cenchris and Hertulia by John Edward Gray. Gray also described four specimens that were collected in Gambia and were preserved in spirits and fluid.[6]
Close-up of head

The ball python is black or dark brown with light brown blotches on the back and sides. Its white or cream belly is scattered with black markings. It is a stocky snake with a relatively small head and smooth scales.[3] It reaches a maximum adult length of 182 cm (6.0 ft). Males typically measure eight to ten subcaudal scales, and females typically measure two to four subcaudal scales.[7] Females reach an average snout-to-vent length of 116.2 cm (45.7 in), a 44.3 mm (1.74 in) long jaw, an 8.7 cm (3.4 in) long tail and a maximum weight of 1.635 kg (3.60 lb). Males are smaller with an average snout-to-vent length of 111.3 cm (43.8 in), a 43.6 mm (1.72 in) long jaw, an 8.6 cm (3.4 in) long tail and a maximum weight of 1.561 kg (3.44 lb).[8] Both sexes have pelvic spurs on both sides of the vent. During copulation, males use these spurs for gripping females.[9] Males tend to have larger spurs, and sex is best determined by manual eversion of the male hemipenes or inserting a probe into the cloaca to check the presence of an inverted hemipenis.[10]
Distribution and habitat

The ball python is native to west Sub Saharan Africa from Senegal, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria through Cameroon, Chad, and the Central African Republic to Sudan and Uganda.[1] It prefers grasslands, savannas, and sparsely wooded areas.[3]
Behavior and ecology

This species is known for its defense strategy that involves coiling into a tight ball when threatened, with its head and neck tucked away in the middle. This defense behavior is typically employed in lieu of biting, which makes this species easy for humans to handle and has contributed to their popularity as a pet.[3]

In the wild, ball pythons favor mammal burrows and other underground hiding places, where they also aestivate. Males tend to display more semi-arboreal behaviors, whilst females tend towards terrestrial behaviors.[11]

The diet of the ball python in the wild consists mostly of small mammals and birds. Young ball pythons of less than 70 cm (28 in) prey foremost on small birds. Ball pythons longer than 100 cm (39 in) prey foremost on small mammals. Males prey more frequently on birds, and females more frequently on mammals.[11] Rodents make up a large percentage of the diet; Gambian pouched rats, black rats, rufous-nosed rats, shaggy rats, and striped grass mice are among the species consumed.[12]
Ball python eggs incubating

Females are oviparous and lay three to 11 rather large, leathery eggs.[7] The eggs hatch after 55 to 60 days. Young male pythons reach sexual maturity at 11–18 months, and females at 20–36 months. Age is only one factor in determining sexual maturity and the ability to breed; weight is the second factor. Males breed at 600 g (21 oz) or more, but in captivity are often not bred until they are 800 g (28 oz), although in captivity, some males have been known to begin breeding at 300–400 g (11–14 oz). Females breed in the wild at weights as low as 800 g (28 oz) though 1,200 g (42 oz) or more in weight is most common; in captivity, breeders generally wait until they are no less than 1,500 g (53 oz). Parental care of the eggs ends once they hatch, and the female leaves the offspring to fend for themselves.[10]

The ball python is primarily threatened by poaching for the international exotic pet trade. It is also hunted for its skin, meat and use in traditional medicine. Other threats include habitat loss as a result of intensified agriculture and pesticide use.[1] Rural hunters in Togo collect gravid females and egg clutches, which they sell to snake ranches. In 2019 alone, 58 interviewed hunters had collected 3,000 live ball pythons and 5,000 eggs.[13]

The Ball python is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List as it experiences a high level of exploitation so that the population has probably declined in most of West Africa.[1]
In captivity
An albino ball python
A ball python in the Bronx Zoo

Wild-caught specimens have greater difficulty adapting to a captive environment, which can result in refusal to feed, and they generally carry internal or external parasites. Specimens have survived for up to 60 years in captivity, with the oldest recorded ball python being kept in captivity 62 years, 59 of those at the Saint Louis Zoo.[14]

Most captive ball pythons accept common rats and mice, and some eat birds, such as chicken and quail.[15] Some keepers feed their ball pythons multimammate mice, which ball pythons would naturally feed on in the wild.[11] Feeder animals are typically sold frozen and thawed by owners to feed to their pythons. Another option for feeding ball pythons is with live food, where the prey is purchased alive and is either killed by the owner and immediately offered to the snake, or set loose and allowed to be 'hunted' by the snake. Live feeding is rarely used in some areas, such as the United Kingdom, where, while not expressly prohibited, is considered a legal gray area due to animal welfare laws which prohibit the suffering of vertebrates.[16] It is generally not recommended to allow the snake to 'hunt' its food as the prey's defensive instinct can cause the prey to fight back, causing injury, and even death to the snake.[17] Younger ball pythons may eat as often as every 5 days, but as they mature, ball pythons tend to wait longer between meals, ranging between 7 and 14 days as adults. A ball python will typically not eat when it is shedding.[18]

Ball pythons are one of the most common reptiles bred in captivity. They usually are able to produce a clutch of six eggs on average, but clutch sizes also range from one to eleven. These snakes usually lay one clutch per year and the eggs hatch around sixty days later. Usually, these eggs are artificially incubated in a captive environment at temperatures between 88–90 degrees Fahrenheit. Some captive breeders use ultra-sounding technology to verify the progress of reproductive development. This can help to increase the chances of successful fertilization as the ultra-sound can help predict the best times to introduce males and females during the breeding season.[19]

In captivity, ball pythons are often bred for specific patterns, or morphs.[20] While most of them are solely cosmetic, some have come under controversy due to inherited physical or cognitive defects associated with the inherited pattern. It has been shown that the spider morph gene is connected with major neurological issues, specifically related to the snake's sense of balance.[21] The International Herpetological Society banned the sale of such morphs at their events.[22] Captive ball pythons are available in hundreds of different color patterns.[23] Some of the most common are pastel, albino, mojave, banana, lesser, and axanthic. Breeders are continuously creating new designer morphs, and over 7,500 different morphs currently exist.[24]
In culture

The ball python is particularly revered by the Igbo people in southeastern Nigeria, who consider it symbolic of the earth, being an animal that travels so close to the ground. Even Christian Igbos treat ball pythons with great care whenever they come across one in a village or on someone's property; they either let them roam or pick them up gently and return them to a forest or field away from houses. If one is accidentally killed, many communities on Igbo land still build a coffin for the snake's remains and give it a short funeral.[25][obsolete source] In northwestern Ghana, there is a taboo towards pythons as people consider them a savior and cannot hurt or eat them. According to folklore a python once helped them flee from their enemies by transforming into a log to allow them to cross a river.[26]

D'Cruze, N.; Wilms, T.; Penner, J.; Luiselli, L.; Jallow, M.; Segniagbeto, G.; Niagate, B. & Schmitz, A. (2021). "Python regius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T177562A15340592. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
McDiarmid, R. W.; Campbell, J. A.; Touré, T. (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Herpetologists' League. ISBN 1-893777-00-6.
Mehrtens, J. M. (1987). "Ball Python, Royal Python (Python regius)". Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. p. 62–. ISBN 080696460X.
Shaw, G. (1802). "Royal Boa". General zoology, or Systematic natural history. Volume III, Part II. London: G. Kearsley. pp. 347–348.
Daudin, F. M. (1803). "Python". Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des reptiles. Vol. Tome 8. Paris: De l'Imprimerie de F. Dufart. p. 384.
Gray, J. E. (1849). "The Royal Rock Snake". Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British museum. London: The Trustees. pp. 90–91.
Barker, D. G.; Barker, T. M. (2006). Ball Pythons: The History, Natural History, Care and Breeding. Pythons of the World. Vol. 2. Boerne, TX: VPI Library. ISBN 0-9785411-0-3.
Aubret, F.; Bonnet, X.; Harris, M.; Maumelat, S. (2005). "Sex Differences in Body Size and Ectoparasite Load in the Ball Python, Python regius". Journal of Herpetology. 39 (2): 315–320. doi:10.1670/111-02N. JSTOR 4092910. S2CID 86230972.
Rizzo, J. M. (2014). "Captive care and husbandry of ball pythons (Python regius)". Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery. 24 (1): 48–52. doi:10.5818/1529-9651-24.1.48. S2CID 162806864.
McCurley, K. (2005). The Complete Ball Python: A Comprehensive Guide to Care, Breeding and Genetic Mutations. ECO & Serpent's Tale Natural History Books. ISBN 978-097-131-9.
Luiselli, L. & Angelici, F. M. (1998). "Sexual size dimorphism and natural history traits are correlated with intersexual dietary divergence in royal pythons (Python regius) from the rainforests of southeastern Nigeria". Italian Journal of Zoology. 65 (2): 183–185. doi:10.1080/11250009809386744.
"Python regius (Ball Python, Royal Python)".
D’Cruze, N.; Harrington, L.A.; Assou, D.; Ronfot, D.; Macdonald, D.W.; Segniagbeto, G.H. & Auliya, M. (2020). "Searching for snakes: Ball python hunting in southern Togo, West Africa". Nature Conservation (38): 13–36. doi:10.3897/natureconservation.38.47864.
"A new squeeze? Snake mystery after lone, elderly python lays a clutch of eggs". 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
McCurley, K. "Ball Python Care Sheet". ReptilesMagazine. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
"House of Commons – Environment, Food and Rural Affairs – Minutes of Evidence". Retrieved 11 August 2020.
Moore, Matthew (9 October 2008). "Mouse bites snake to death". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
"Feeding Royal (Ball) pythons". Exoticdirect. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
Bertocchi, P. (2018). "Monitoring the reproductive activity in captive-bred female ball pythons (P. regius) by ultrasound evaluation and noninvasive analysis of faecal reproductive hormone (progesterone and 17β-estradiol) metabolites trends". PLOS ONE. 13 (6): e0199377. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1399377B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199377. PMC 6021098. PMID 29949610.
Bulinski, S. C. (2016). "A Crash Course in Ball Python/Reptile Genetics". Reptiles magazine.
Rose, M. P. & Williams, D. L. (2014). "Neurologic dysfunction in a ball python (Python regius) color morph, and implications for welfare". Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. 23 (3): 234–239. doi:10.1053/j.jepm.2014.06.002.
"Breeders Meetings – New Policy – June 2017". International Herpetological Society. 2017.
Yurdakul E. (2020). "Ball Python Morphs". Reptilian world.
"Morph List – World of Ball Pythons". World of Ball Pythons. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
Hambly, W. D.; Laufer, B. (1931). "Serpent worship". Fieldiana Anthropology. 21 (1).
Diawuo, F.; Issifu, A. K. (2015). "Exploring the African Traditional Belief Systems in Natural Resource Conservation and Management in Ghana". Journal of Pan African Studies. 8 (9): 115–131.


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