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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Annelida
Classis: Polychaeta
Subclassis: Palpata
Ordo: Canalipalpata
Subordo: Sabellida

Familia: Serpulidae
Subfamiliae (6): Ficopomatinae - Filograninae - Floriprotinae - Protinae - Protulinae - Serpulinae

Incertae sedis

Genera (19): Amphiserpula – Apomatolos – Bathyditrupa – Crinoserpula – Filogranella – Laminatubus – Microprotula – Nidificaria – Orthoconorca – Paraprotula – Philippiprotula – Piratesa – Pixellgrana – Protectoconorca – Protohydroides – Protoserpula – Semiserpula – Siliquaria – Turbocavus – Vitreotubus

Bastida-Zavala, R. 2012. Serpula and Spiraserpula (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Western Atlantic and Gulf of Guinea. ZooKeys 198: 1–23. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.198.3030 Open access. Reference page.
Bastida-Zavala, J.R., Buelna, A.S.R., León-González, J.A., Camacho-Cruz, K.A. & Carmona, I. 2016. New records of sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta: Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Zootaxa 4184(3): 401–457. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4184.3.1. Reference page.
Kupriyanova, E.K., Bailey-Brock, J. & Nishi, E. 2011. New records of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected by R/V "Vityaz" from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 2871: 43–60. Preview (PDF).
Kupriyanova, E. & Ippolitov, A.P. 2015. Deep-sea serpulids (Annelida: Polychaeta) in tetragonal tubes: on a tube convergence path from the Mesozoic to Recent. Zootaxa 4044(2): 151–200. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4044.2.1. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Kupriyanova, E.K., Nishi, E., Kawato, M. & Fujiwara, Y. 2010. New records of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from hydrothermal vents of North Fiji, Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 2389: 57–68. Preview (PDF).
Kupriyanova, E.K., Sun, Y., ten Hove, H.A., Wong, E. & Rouse, G.W. 2015. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. IN Hutchings, P.A. & Kupriyanova, E.K. (eds.), 2015: Coral reef-associated fauna of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: polychaetes and allies. Zootaxa 4019(1): 275–353. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.13. Preview (PDF) Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Ben-Eliahu, N.M. & ten Hove, H.A. 2011. Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Suez Canal—from a Lessepsian migration perspective (a monograph). Zootaxa 2848: 1–147. Preview (PDF). PDF.
Prentiss, N.K., Vasileiadou, K., Faulwetter, S., Arvanitidis, C. & ten Hove, H.A. 2014. A new genus and species of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellida) from the Caribbean Sea. Zootaxa 3900(2): 204–222. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2.2 Reference page.
ten Hove, H.A. & Kupriyanova, E.K. 2009. Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): The state of affairs. Zootaxa 2036: 1–126. PDF. Reference page.

The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta. The members of this family differ from other sabellid tube worms in that they have a specialized operculum that blocks the entrance of their tubes when they withdraw into the tubes. In addition, serpulids secrete tubes of calcium carbonate. Serpulids are the most important biomineralizers among annelids. About 300 species in the family Serpulidae are known, all but one of which live in saline waters.[3] The earliest serpulids are known from the Permian (Wordian to late Permian).[1]

The blood of most species of serpulid and sabellid worms contains the oxygen-binding pigment chlorocruorin. This is used to transport oxygen to the tissues. It has an affinity for carbon monoxide which is 570 times as strong as that of the haemoglobin found in human blood.[4]

Empty serpulid shells can sometimes be confused with the shells of a family of marine gastropod mollusks, the Vermetidae or worm snails. The most obvious difference is that serpulid shells are dull inside, whereas the molluscan vermetid shells are shiny inside.
Selected genera
Pecten sp. with serpulid worm encrusters; Duck Harbor Beach on Cape Cod Bay, Wellfleet, Massachusetts.

Amplicaria Knight-Jones, 1984
Anomalorbis Vine, 1972
Apomatus Philippi, 1844
Bathyvermilia Zibrowius, 1973
Bushiella Knight-Jones, 1973
Capeospira Pillai, 1970
Chitinopoma Levinsen, 1884
Circeis Saint-Joseph, 1894
Crucigera Benedict, 1887
Dextralia Knight-Jones, 1973
Ditrupa Berkeley, 1835
Eulaeospira Pillai, 1970
Ficopomatus Sauthern, 1921
Filograna Berkeley, 1835[5]
Filogranella Ben-Eliahu and Dafni, 1979
Filogranula Langerhans, 1884
Galeolaria Lamarck, J.B. de (1818)
Hyalopotamus Marenzeller, 1878
Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768
Janua Saint-Joseph, 1894
Josephella Caullery and Mesnil, 1896
Leodora Saint-Joseph, 1894
Metavermilia Bush, 1904
Neodexiospira Pillai, 1970
Neovermila Day, 1961
Paradexiospira Caullery and Mesnil, 1897
Paralaeospira Caullery and Mesnil, 1897
Pileolaria Claparede, 1870
Placostegus Philippi, 1844
Pomatoceros Philippi, 1844
Pomatoleios Pixell, 1912
Pomatostegus Schmarda, 1861
Protolaeospira Pixell, 1912
Protula Risso, 1826
Pseudochitinopoma Zibrowius, 1969
Pseudovermilia Bush, 1907
†Rotularia Defrance, 1827
Salmacina Claparede, 1870
Semivermila Imajima, 1978
Serpula Linnaeus, 1767 Type genus
Simplicaria Knight-Jones, 1973
Spirobranchus Blainville, 1818
Spirorbis Daudin, 1800
Turbocavus Prentiss et al., 2014[6]
Vermiliopsis Saint-Joseph, 1894



Rossana Sanfilippo; Antonietta Rosso; Agatino Reitano; Gianni Insacco (2017). "First record of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes from the Permian of Sicily". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 62 (1): 25–38. doi:10.4202/app.00288.2016.
Read G, Fauchald K, eds. (2019). "Serpulidae Rafinesque, 1815". World Polychaeta database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
Kupriyanova EK, ten Hove HA, Sket B, Zakšek V, Trontelj P, Rouse GW (1 December 2009). "Evolution of the unique freshwatercave-dwelling tube worm Marifugia cavatica (Annelida: Serpulidae)". Systematics and Biodiversity. 7 (4): 389–401. doi:10.1017/S1477200009990168 – via ResearchGate.
Cowles, David (2006). "Serpula vermicularis Linnaeus, 1767". Invertebrates of the Salish Sea. Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory at Walla Walla University. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
Read, G.; Fauchald, K., eds. (2014). "Filograna Berkeley, 1835". World Polychaeta database. Retrieved 2015-02-22 – via World Register of Marine Species.

Prentiss, N.K.; Vasileiadou, K.; Faulwetter, S.; et al. (2014). "A new genus and species of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellida) from the Caribbean Sea" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3900 (2): 204–222. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2.2. PMC 4340580. PMID 25543733.


Abbott, R. Tucker (1986). Seashells of North America. St. Martin's Press.
ten Hove, H.A.; van den Hurk, P. (1993). "A review of recent and fossil serpulid 'reefs'; actuopalaeontology and the 'Upper Malm' serpulid limestones in NW Germany". Geologie en Mijnbouw. 72 (1): 23–67.
Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S. & Barnes, Robert D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Inc. ISBN 0-03-025982-7.

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