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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Tardigrada
Classis: Eutardigrada
Ordines (2): Apochela - Parachela

Pilato, G. 2013: The taxonomic value of the structures for the insertion of the stylet muscles in the Eutardigrada, and description of a new genus. Zootaxa 3721(4): 365–378. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3721.4.4 Reference page.
Pilato, G.; Binda, M.G. 2010: Definition of families, subfamilies, genera and subgenera of the Eutardigrada, and keys to their identification. Zootaxa, 2404: 1–54. Preview
Pilato, G.; Lisi, O. 2014: An exceptional event during the moulting process of an eutardigrade: two bucco-pharyngeal apparatuses present. Zootaxa 3802(2): 297–299. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3802.2.11 Reference page.
Schuster, R.O., Nelson, D.R., Grigarick, A.A., and Christenberry, D., 1980. Systematic Criteria of the Eutardigrada. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, vol. 99, no. 3: 284–303. [1]


Zicha, Ondřej et al. Eutardigrada – Taxon details on Biological Library (BioLib).
Eutardigrada – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Eutardigrada Taxon details on Fauna Europaea

Eutardigrada are a class of tardigrades (Tardigrada) without lateral appendages. Primarily freshwater bound, some species have secondarily gained the ability to live in marine environments (Halobiotus). By cryptobiosis many species are able to live temporarily in very dry environments. More than 700 species have been described.[2]

The order Apochela consists of only one family, Milnesiidae, with two genera: Milnesium and Limmenius. Milnesium tardigradum can be found worldwide and is one of the biggest species among tardigrades (up to 1.4 mm); similar-looking species have been found in Cretaceous amber.[1] The mouth of this predator has a wide opening, so the animal can eat rotifers and larger protists. Other eutardigrades belong to the order Parachela.

Budd, G. (2001). "Tardigrades as 'Stem-Group Arthropods': The Evidence from the Cambrian Fauna". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 240 (3–4): 265–279. doi:10.1078/0044-5231-00034. ISSN 0044-5231.
Zhang, Z.-Q. (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 7–12. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.3.

Biology Encyclopedia

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