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Genetics Introduction

Genetics is the study of genes, and tries to explain what they are and how they work. Genes are how living organisms inherit features from their ancestors; for example, children usually look like their parents because they have inherited their parents' genes. Genetics tries to identify which features are inherited, and explain how these features are passed from generation to generation.

In genetics, a feature of a living thing is called a "trait". Some traits are part of an organism's physical appearance; such as a person's eye-color, height or weight. Other sorts of traits are not easily seen and include blood types or resistance to diseases. Some traits are inherited through our genes, so tall and thin people tend to have tall and thin children. Other traits come from interactions between our genes and the environment, so a child might inherit the tendency to be tall, but if they are poorly nourished, they will still be short. The way our genes and environment interact to produce a trait can be complicated. For example, the chances of somebody dying of cancer or heart disease seems to depend on both their genes and their lifestyle.

Genes are made from a long molecule called DNA, which is copied and inherited across generations. DNA is made of simple units that line up in a particular order within this large molecule. The order of these units carries genetic information, similar to how the order of letters on a page carry information. The language used by DNA is called the genetic code, which lets organisms read the information in the genes. This information is the instructions for constructing and operating a living organism.

The information within a particular gene is not always exactly the same between one organism and another, so different copies of a gene do not always give exactly the same instructions. Each unique form of a single gene is called an allele. As an example, one allele for the gene for hair color could instruct the body to produce a lot of pigment, producing black hair, while a different allele of the same gene might give garbled instructions that fail to produce any pigment, giving white hair. Mutations are random changes in genes, and can create new alleles. Mutations can also produce new traits, such as when mutations to an allele for black hair produce a new allele for white hair. This appearance of new traits is important in evolution.

Inheritance in biology

Genes and inheritance
A section of DNA; the sequence of the plate-like units (nucleotides) in the center carries information.
Green eyes are a recessive trait.

Genes are inherited as units, with two parents dividing out copies of their genes to their offspring. You can think of this process like mixing two hands of cards, shuffling them, and then dealing them out again. Humans have two copies of each of their genes (i.e., two alleles) and when people reproduce they make copies of their genes and put them into eggs or sperm, but only put in one copy of each type of gene. When an egg joins with a sperm, this gives a child a complete set of genes. This child will have the same number of genes as its parents, but for any gene one of their two copies will come from their father, and one from their mother.[1]

The effects of this mixing depends on the types (the alleles) of the gene you are interested in. If the father has two alleles for green eyes, and the mother has two alleles for brown eyes, all their children will get two alleles that give different instructions, one for green eyes and one for brown. The eye color of these children depends on how these alleles work together. If one allele overrides the instructions from another, it is called the dominant allele, and the allele that is overridden is called the recessive allele. In the case of a daughter with both green and brown alleles, brown is dominant and she ends up with brown eyes.[2]

Although the green color allele is still there in this brown-eyed girl, it doesn't show. This is a difference between what you see on the surface (the traits of an organism, called its phenotype) and the genes within the organism (its genotype). In this example you can call the brown allele "B" and the green allele "g". (It is normal to write dominant alleles with capital letters and recessive ones with lower-case letters.) The brown-eyed daughter has the "brown eye phenotype" but her genotype is Bg, with one copy of the B allele, and one of the g allele.

Now imagine that this woman grows up and has children with a brown-eyed man who also has a Bg genotype. Her eggs will be a mixture of two types, one sort containing the B allele, and one sort the g allele. Similarly, her partner will produce a mix of two types of sperm containing one or the other of these two alleles. Now, when the alleles are mixed up in their offspring, these children have a chance of getting either brown or green eyes, since they could get a genotype of BB = brown eyes, Bg = brown eyes or gg = green eyes. In this generation, there is therefore a chance of the recessive allele showing itself in the phenotype of the children - some of them may have green eyes like their grandfather.[2]

Many traits are inherited in a more complicated way than the example above. This can happen when there are several genes involved, each contributing a small part to the end result. Tall people tend to have tall children because their children get a package of many alleles that each contribute a bit to how much they grow. However, there are not clear groups of "short people" and "tall people", like there are groups of people with brown or green eyes. This is because of the large number of genes involved; this makes the trait very variable and people are of many different heights.[3] Inheritance can also be complicated when the trait depends on the interaction between genetics and the environment. This is quite common, for example, if a child does not eat enough nutritious food this will not change traits like eye color, but it could stunt their growth.[4]

Inherited diseases

Some diseases are hereditary and run in families; others, such as infectious diseases, are caused by the environment. Other diseases come from a combination of genes and the environment.[5] Genetic disorders are diseases that are caused by a single allele of a gene and are inherited in families. These include Huntington's disease, Cystic fibrosis or Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cystic fibrosis, for example, is caused by mutations in a single gene called CFTR and is inherited as a recessive trait.[6]

Other diseases are influenced by genetics, but the genes a person gets from their parents only change their risk of getting a disease. Most of these diseases are inherited in a complex way, with either multiple genes involved, or coming from both genes and the environment. As an example, the risk of breast cancer is 50 times higher in the families most at risk, compared to the families least at risk. This variation is probably due to a large number of alleles, each changing the risk a little bit.[7] Several of the genes have been identified, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, but not all of them. However, although some of the risk is genetic, the risk of this cancer is also increased by being overweight, drinking a lot of alcohol and not exercising.[8] A woman's risk of breast cancer therefore comes from a large number of alleles interacting with her environment, so it is very hard to predict.

How genes work

Genes make proteins

The function of genes is to provide the information needed to make molecules called proteins in cells.[1] Cells are the smallest independent parts of organisms: the human body contains about 100 trillion cells, while very small organisms like bacteria are just one single cell. A cell is like a miniature and very complex factory that can make all the parts needed to produce a copy of itself, which happens when cells divide. There is a simple division of labor in cells - genes give instructions and proteins carry out these instructions, tasks like building a new copy of a cell, or repairing damage.[9] Each type of protein is a specialist that only does one job, so if a cell needs to do something new, it must make a new protein to do this job. Similarly, if a cell needs to do something faster or slower than before, it makes more or less of the protein responsible. Genes tell cells what to do by telling them which proteins to make and in what amounts.
Genes are expressed by being transcribed into RNA, and this RNA then translated into protein.

Proteins are made of a chain of 20 different types of amino acid molecules. This chain folds up into a compact shape, rather like an untidy ball of string. The shape of the protein is determined by the sequence of amino acids along its chain and it is this shape that, in turn, determines what the protein will do.[9] For example, some proteins have parts of their surface that perfectly match the shape of another molecule, allowing the protein to bind to this molecule very tightly. Other proteins are enzymes, which are like tiny machines that alter other molecules.[10]

The information in DNA is held in the sequence of the repeating units along the DNA chain.[11] These units are four types of nucleotides (A,T,G and C) and the sequence of nucleotides stores information in an alphabet called the genetic code. When a gene is read by a cell the DNA sequence is copied into a very similar molecule called RNA (this process is called transcription). Transcription is controlled by other DNA sequences (such as promoters), which show a cell where genes are, and control how often they are copied. The RNA copy made from a gene is then fed through a structure called a ribosome, which translates the sequence of nucleotides in the RNA into the correct sequence of amino acids and joins these amino acids together to make a complete protein chain. The new protein then folds up into its active form. The process of moving information from the language of DNA into the language of amino acids is called translation.[12]
DNA replication. DNA is unwound and nucleotides are matched to make two new strands.

If the sequence of the nucleotides in a gene changes, the sequence of the amino acids in the protein it produces may also change - if part of a gene is deleted, the protein produced will be shorter and may not work any more.[9] This is the reason why different alleles of a gene can have different effects in an organism. As an example, hair color depends on how much of a dark substance called melanin is put into the hair as it grows. If a person has a normal set of the genes involved in making melanin, they make all the proteins needed and they grow dark hair. However, if the alleles for a particular protein have different sequences and produce proteins that can't do their jobs, no melanin will be produced and the hair will be white. This condition is called albinism and the person with this condition is called an albino.[13]

Genes are copied

Genes are copied each time a cell divides into two new cells. The process that copies DNA is called DNA replication.[11] It is through a similar process that a child inherits genes from its parents, when a copy from the mother is mixed with a copy from the father.

DNA can be copied very easily and accurately because each piece of DNA can direct the creation of a new copy of its information. This is because DNA is made of two strands that pair together like the two sides of a zipper. The nucleotides are in the center, like the teeth in the zipper, and pair up to hold the two strands together. Importantly, the four different sorts of nucleotides are different shapes, so in order for the strands to close up properly, an A nucleotide must go opposite a T nucleotide, and a G opposite a C. This exact pairing is called base pairing.[11]

When DNA is copied, the two strands of the old DNA are pulled apart by enzymes which move along each of the two single strands pairing up new nucleotide units and then zipping the strands closed. This produces two new pieces of DNA, each containing one strand from the old DNA and one newly made strand. This process isn't perfect and sometimes the proteins will make mistakes and put the wrong nucleotide into the strand they are building. This causes a change in the sequence of that gene. These changes in DNA sequence are called mutations.[14] Mutations produce new alleles of genes. Sometimes these changes stop the gene from working properly, like the melanin genes discussed above. In other cases these mutations can change what the gene does or even let it do its job a little better than before. These mutations and their effects on the traits of organisms are one of the causes of evolution.[15]

Genes and evolution
Further information: Evolution and Introduction to evolution
Mice with different coat colors.

A population of organisms evolves when an inherited trait becomes more common or less common over time.[15] For instance, all the mice living on an island would be a single population of mice. If over a few generations, white mice went from being rare, to being a large part of this population, then the coat color of these mice would be evolving. In terms of genetics, this is called a change in allele frequency—such as an increase in the frequency of the allele for white fur.

Alleles become more or less common either just by chance (in a process called genetic drift), or through natural selection.[16] In natural selection, if an allele makes it more likely that an organism will survive and reproduce, then over time this allele will become more common. But if an allele is harmful, natural selection will make it less common. For example, if the island was getting colder each year and was covered with snow for much of the time, then the allele for white fur would become useful for the mice, since it would make them harder to see against the snow. Fewer of the white mice would be eaten by predators, so over time white mice would out-compete mice with dark fur. White fur alleles would become more common, and dark fur alleles would become more rare.

Mutations create new alleles. These alleles have new DNA sequences and can produce proteins with new properties.[17] So if an island was populated entirely by black mice, mutations could happen creating alleles for white fur. The combination of mutations creating new alleles at random, and natural selection picking out those which are useful, causes adaptation. This is when organisms change in ways that help them to survive and reproduce.

Genetic engineering
Main article: Genetic engineering

Since traits come from the genes in a cell, putting a new piece of DNA into a cell can produce a new trait. This is how genetic engineering works. For example, crop plants can be given a gene from an Arctic fish, so they produce an antifreeze protein in their leaves.[18] This can help prevent frost damage. Other genes that can be put into crops include a natural insecticide from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. The insecticide kills insects that eat the plants, but is harmless to people.[19] In these plants the new genes are put into the plant before it is grown, so the genes will be in every part of the plant, including its seeds. The plant's offspring will then inherit the new genes, something which has led to concern about the spread of new traits into wild plants.[20]

The kind of technology used in genetic engineering is also being developed to treat people with genetic disorders in an experimental medical technique called gene therapy.[21] However, here the new gene is put in after the person has grown up and become ill, so any new gene will not be inherited by their children. Gene therapy works by trying to replace the allele that causes the disease with an allele that will work properly.

See also

* List of basic genetics topics
* Common misunderstandings of genetics
* Predictive medicine
* Full genome sequencing


1. ^ a b (web resource) University of Utah Genetics Learning Center animated tour of the basics of genetics. Howstuffworks.com. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/tour. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
2. ^ a b How are human eye colors inherited?, Athro Limited, Accessed 20 May 2008
3. ^ Multifactorial Inheritance Health Library, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, Accessed 20 May 2008
4. ^ Low income kids' height doesn't measure up by age 1 University of Michigan Health System, Accessed 20th May 2008
5. ^ requently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders NIH, Accessed 20 May 2008
6. ^ Cystic fibrosis Genetics Home Reference, NIH, Accessed 16 May 2008
7. ^ Peto J (June 2002). "Breast cancer susceptibility-A new look at an old model". Cancer Cell 1 (5): 411–2. doi:10.1016/S1535-6108(02)00079-X. ISSN 1535-6108. PMID 12124169.
8. ^ What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer? American Cancer Society, Accessed 16 May 2008
9. ^ a b c The Structures of Life National Institute of General Medical Sciences, Accessed 20th May 2008
10. ^ Enzymes HowStuffWorks, Accessed 20th May 2008
11. ^ a b c What is DNA? Genetics Home Reference, Accessed 16 May 2008
12. ^ DNA-RNA-Protein Nobelprize.org, Accessed 20th May 2008
13. ^ What is Albinism? The National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, Accessed 20 May 2008
14. ^ Mutations The University of Utah, Genetic Science Learning Center, Accessed 20th May 2008
15. ^ a b Brain, Marshall. "How Evolution Works" (web resource). How Stuff Works: Evolution Library. Howstuffworks.com. http://science.howstuffworks.com/evolution.htm/printable. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
16. ^ Mechanisms: The Processes of Evolution Understanding Evolution, Accessed 20th May 2008
17. ^ Genetic Variation Understanding Evolution, Accessed 20th May 2008
18. ^ Long underwear for water Notre Dame magazine, 1998
19. ^ Tifton, Georgia: A Peanut Pest Showdown USDA, accessed 16 May 2008
20. ^ Genetically engineered organisms public issues education Cornell University, Accessed 16 May 2008
21. ^ Staff (November 18, 2005). "Gene Therapy" (FAQ). Human Genome Project Information. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml. Retrieved 2006-05-28.

Further reading

* Jones, Steve (2000). The Language of the Genes. Flamingo. ISBN 0-00-655243-9. (Aventis Prize winner)
* Schwartz, James (2008). In Pursuit of the Gene: From Darwin to DNA. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-67-402670-5.
* Hamer, Dean and Copeland, Peter (1999). Living with Our Genes: Why They Matter More Than You Think. Anchor. ISBN 0-38-548584-0.
* Goodsell, David (1996). Our Molecular Nature: The Body's Motors, Machines and Messages. Springer. ISBN 0-38-794498-2.

External links


* Introduction to Genetics, University of Utah
* Introduction to Genes and Disease, NCBI open book
* Genetics glossary, A talking glossary of genetic terms.

DNA and genes

* Animated guide to cloning
* Genetics NCBI, A Science Primer


* (web resource) Understanding Evolution: your one-stop source for information on evolution. The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_01. Retrieved 2008-01-24.


* What Color Eyes Would Your Children Have? Genetics of human eye color: An interactive introduction.
* Double Helix Game from the Nobel Prize website. Match CATG bases with each other, and other games.
* Transcribe and translate a gene. University of Utah
* StarGenetics software simulates mating experiments between organisms that are genetically different across a range of traits.

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