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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Eupatorieae
Subtribus: Oxylobinae
Genus: Ageratina
Species: A. acevedoana – A. acevedoi – A. adenophora – A. adenophoroides – A. aegirophylla – A. alexanderi – A. allenii – A. almedae – A. altissima – A. amblyolepis – A. ampla – A. anchistea – A. angustifolia – A. anisochroma – A. apollinairei – A. appendiculata – A. aracaiensis – A. arbutifolia – A. areolaris – A. aristeguietii – A. aristei – A. aromatica – A. arsenei – A. asclepiadea – A. astellera – A. atrocordata – A. austin-smithii – A. ayerscottiana – A. baccharoides – A. badia – A. barbensis – A. barclayae – A. barriei – A. beamanii – A. bellidifolia – A. bishopii – A. blepharilepis – A. bobjansenii – A. boekei – A. boyacensis – A. brandegeana – A. brevipes – A. burgeri – A. calaminthifolia – A. calophylla – A. campii – A. campyloclada – A. capazica – A. capillipes – A. cardiophylla – A. cerifera – A. chachapoyasensis – A. chazaroana – A. chiapensis – A. chimalapana – A. chiriquensis – A. choricephala – A. choricephaloides – A. colimana – A. collodes – A. concordiana – A. conspicua – A. contigua – A. contorta – A. corylifolia – A. costaricensis – A. crassiceps – A. crassiramea – A. cremasta – A. croatii – A. cronquistii – A. cruzii – A. cuatrecasasii – A. cuencana – A. cuicatlana – A. cumbensis – A. cutervensis – A. cuzcoensis – A. cylindrica – A. dasyneura – A. davidsei – A. deltoidea – A. desquamans – A. dictyoneura – A. dillonii – A. diversipila – A. dolichobasis – A. dombeyana – A. dorrii – A. elegans – A. enixa – A. espinosarum – A. etlana – A. etlensis – A. ewanii – A. fastigiata – A. feuereri – A. flaviseta – A. fleischmannioides – A. flourensifolia – A. funckii – A. geminata – A. gentryana – A. gilbertii – A. glabrata – A. glandulifera – A. glauca – A. glechonophylla – A. glischra – A. gloeoclada – A. glyptophlebia – A. gonzalezorum – A. gracilenta – A. gracilis – A. grashoffii – A. gynoxoides – A. gypsophila – A. haageana – A. halbertiana – A. harlingii – A. hartii – A. hasegawana – A. havanensis – A. hederifolia – A. helenae – A. henzium – A. herbacea – A. hernandezii – A. hidalgensis – A. hirtella – A. huahuapana – A. huehueteca – A. humochica – A. hyssopina – A. ibaguensis – A. ilicifolia – A. illita – A. iltisii – A. infiernillensis – A. intercostulata – A. intibucensis – A. irrasa – A. isolepis – A. ixiocladon – A. jahnii – A. jaliscensis – A. jalpana – A. jalpanserra – A. jocotepecana – A. josepaneroi – A. josephensis – A. jucunda – A. juxtlahuacensis – A. killipii – A. kochiana – A. kupperi – A. lapsensis – A. lasia – A. lasioneura – A. latipes – A. leiocarpa – A. lemmonii – A. leptodictyon – A. liebmannii – A. ligustrina – A. lobulifera – A. lopez-mirandae – A. lorentzii – A. luciae-brauniae – A. lucida – A. macbridei – A. macdonaldii – A. macvaughii – A. mairetiana – A. malacolepis – A. manantlana – A. maranonii – A. markporteri – A. mayajana – A. mazatecana – A. megacephala – A. megaphylla – A. miahuatlana – A. microcephala – A. miquihuana – A. molinae – A. moorei – A. mortoniana – A. muelleri – A. mutiscuensis – A. neohintoniorum – A. neriifolia – A. nesomii – A. nubicola – A. oaxacana – A. ocanensis – A. occidentalis – A. oligocephala – A. oppositifolia – A. oreithales – A. ovilla – A. ozolotepecana – A. palmeri – A. pampalcensis – A. paramensis – A. parayana – A. parviceps – A. paucibracteata – A. pauciflora – A. paupercula – A. pazcuarensis – A. pelotropha – A. pendula – A. pentlandiana – A. perezii – A. persetosa – A. petiolaris – A. photina – A. pichinchensis – A. pochutlana – A. popayanensis – A. potosina – A. pringlei – A. proba – A. prunellifolia – A. prunifolia – A. pseudochilca – A. pseudogracilis – A. psilodora – A. queretaroana – A. ramireziorum – A. ramonensis – A. rangelii – A. regalis – A. reserva – A. resinifera – A. resiniflua – A. reticulifera – A. rhodopappa – A. rhodopoda – A. rhomboidea – A. rhypodes – A. rhytidodes – A. riparia – A. riskindii – A. robinsoniana – A. roraimensis – A. rosei – A. rothrockii – A. rubricaulis – A. rupicola – A. salicifolia – A. saltillensis – A. salvadorensis – A. sandersii – A. saxorum – A. scopulorum – A. scorodonioides – A. seleri – A. serboana – A. serrulata – A. shastensis – A. simulans – A. sodiroi – A. soejimana – A. solana – A. sotarensis – A. sousae – A. spooneri – A. standleyi – A. sternbergiana – A. stictophylla – A. stricta – A. subcordata – A. subferruginea – A. subglabra – A. sundbergii – A. tambillensis – A. tarmensis – A. tejalapana – A. tenuis – A. textitlana – A. theifolia – A. thyrsiflora – A. tinifolia – A. tomentella – A. tonduzii – A. tovarae – A. trianae – A. triangulatum – A. triniona – A. tristis – A. urbanii – A. vacciniifolia – A. valerioi – A. vallincola – A. venulosa – A. vernalis – A. vernicosa – A. viburnoides – A. viejoana – A. villarrealii – A. villonacoensis – A. viscosa – A. viscosissima – A. warnockii – A. websteri – A. whitei – A. wrightii – A. wurdackii – A. yaharana – A. yecorana – A. zapalinama – A. zaragozana – A. zinniifolia – A. zunilana –
Name

Ageratina Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 10: 286. (1841)

Type species: Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 10: 286. (1841)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Kyrstenia Neck. ex Greene (1903)
Heterotypic
Batschia Moench (1794) nom. illeg. hom.
Type species: Batschia nivea Moench. (1794)
Piptothrix A.Gray (1886)
Type species: Piptothrix palmeri A. Gray. (1886)
Mallinoa J.M. Coult. (1895)
Type species: Mallinoa corymbosa J.M. Coult. (1895)
Pachythamnus (R.M.King & H.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (1972)
Type species: Pachythamnus crassirameus R.M.King & H.Rob. (1972)

References

Spach, E. 1841. Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux. Phanérogames 10: 286.
Hassler, M. 2018. Ageratina. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 January 06. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Ageratina. Published online. Accessed: January 06 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Ageratina. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 06 January 2018.Ageratina (snakeroot) is a genus of more than 330[1][2][3][4] perennials and rounded shrubs in the family Asteraceae.

These plants grow mainly in the warmer regions of the Americas and West Indies. Over 150 species are native to Mexico.[5] Some flourish in the cooler areas of the eastern United States. Two Mexican species have become a pest in parts of Australia and Taiwan.[4] Ageratina used to belong to the genus Eupatorium, but it has been reclassified.

The genus name Ageratina means "like Ageratum"[6] and consists of Ageratum and -ina, the feminine form of the Latin adjectival suffix -inus.

Description

The inflorescence consists of multiple fluffy, red or pinkish-white capitula in clusters. These lack the typical ray flowers of the composites.

They have multiple, much-branched woody stems. The petioles are rather long. The leaves are triangular, serrate and opposite with a foul-smelling, musky scent.
Species

As of July 2020, Plants of the World online has 322 accepted species:[7]

Ageratina acevedoana B.L.Turner
Ageratina acevedoi H.Rob.
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina adenophoroides H.Rob.
Ageratina aegirophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina alexanderi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina allenii (Standl.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina altissima (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina amblyolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ampla (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina anchistea (Grashoff & Beaman) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina angustifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina anisochroma (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina apollinairei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina appendiculata V.M.Badillo
Ageratina aracaiensis V.M.Badillo
Ageratina arbutifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina areolaris (DC.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina aristeguietii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina aristei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach
Ageratina arsenei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina asclepiadea (L.f.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina astellera (B.L.Turner) B.L.Turner
Ageratina atrocordata (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina austin-smithii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ayerscottiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina baccharoides (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina badia (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barbensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barclayae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barriei B.L.Turner
Ageratina beamanii B.L.Turner
Ageratina bellidifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina bishopii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina blepharilepis (Sch.Bip.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina bobjansenii B.L.Turner
Ageratina boekei R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina boyacensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina brandegeana (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina brevipes (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina burgeri R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina caeciliae (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina calaminthifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina calophylla (Greene) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina campii H.Rob.
Ageratina campylocladia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina capazica V.M.Badillo
Ageratina capillipes R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cardiophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina carmonis (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cartagoensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cerifera (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina chachapoyasensis (Cuatrec.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina chazaroana B.L.Turner
Ageratina chimalapana B.L.Turner
Ageratina chiriquensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina choricephala (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina choricephaloides (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina colimana B.L.Turner
Ageratina collodes (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina concordiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina contigua R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina contorta (C.D.Adams) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina corylifolia (Griseb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina costaricensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina crassiceps (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina crassiramea (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cremastra (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina croatii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cronquistii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cruzii B.L.Turner
Ageratina cuatrecasasii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuencana (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuicatlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina cumbensis H.Rob.
Ageratina cutervensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuzcoensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cylindrica (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dasyneura (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina davidsei R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina deltoidea (Jacq.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina desquamans (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dictyoneura (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dillonii H.Rob.
Ageratina diversipila R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dolichobasis (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dombeyana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dorrii V.M.Badillo
Ageratina elegans (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina enixa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina espinosarum (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina etlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina etlensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ewanii H.Rob.
Ageratina fastigiata (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina feuereri H.Rob.
Ageratina flaviseta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina fleischmannioides H.Rob.
Ageratina flourensifolia (B.L.Turner) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina funckii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina geminata (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gentryana B.L.Turner
Ageratina gilbertii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glandulifera (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glauca (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glechonophylla (Less.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glischra (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gloeoclada (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glyptophlebia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gonzalezorum B.L.Turner
Ageratina gracilenta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gracilis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina grandifolia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina grashoffii B.L.Turner
Ageratina guatemalensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gynoxoides (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gypsophila B.L.Turner
Ageratina haageana (Regel & Körn.) H.Rob.
Ageratina halbertiana (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina harlingii H.Rob.
Ageratina hartii (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hasegawana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina havanensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hederifolia (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina helenae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina henzium B.L.Turner
Ageratina herbacea (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hernandezii B.L.Turner
Ageratina herrerae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hidalgensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hirtella R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina huahuapana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina huehueteca (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina humochica B.L.Turner
Ageratina hyssopina (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ibaguensis (Sch.Bip. ex Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ilicifolia B.L.Turner
Ageratina illita (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina iltisii B.L.Turner
Ageratina infiernillensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina intercostulata (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina intibucensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina irrasa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina isolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ixiocladon (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina jahnii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina jaliscensis (B.L.Rob.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina jalpana B.L.Turner
Ageratina jalpanserra B.L.Turner
Ageratina jocotepecana B.L.Turner
Ageratina josepaneroi B.L.Turner
Ageratina josephensis Rodr.-Cabeza & S.Díaz
Ageratina jucunda (Greene) Clewell & Wooten
Ageratina juxtlahuacensis Panero & Villaseñor
Ageratina killipii H.Rob.
Ageratina kochiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina kupperi (Suess.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lapsensis B.L.Turner
Ageratina lasia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lasioneura (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina latipes (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina leiocarpa (B.L.Rob.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina lemmonii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina leptodictyon (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina liebmannii (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ligustrina (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lobulifera (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lopez-mirandae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lorentzii (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina luciae-brauniae (Fernald) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lucida (Ortega) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina macbridei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina macdonaldii B.L.Turner
Ageratina macvaughii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina malacolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina manantlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina maranonii H.Rob.
Ageratina markporteri B.L.Turner
Ageratina mayajana B.L.Turner
Ageratina mazatecana B.L.Turner
Ageratina megacephala B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina megaphylla B.L.Turner
Ageratina miahuatlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina microcephala B.L.Turner
Ageratina miquihuana (B.L.Turner) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina molinae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina moorei B.L.Turner
Ageratina mortoniana (Alain) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina muelleri (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina mutiscuensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina neohintonorium B.L.Turner
Ageratina neriifolia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina nesomii B.L.Turner
Ageratina nubicola Pruski & Clase
Ageratina oaxacana (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ocanensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina occidentalis (Hook.)R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina oligocephala (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina oppositifolia (A.Gray) B.L.Turner
Ageratina oreithales (Greenm.) B.L.Turner
Ageratina ovilla (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ozolotepecana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina palmeri (A.Gray) B.L.Turner
Ageratina pampalcensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina paramensis (Aristeg.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina parayana (Espinosa) B.L.Turner
Ageratina parviceps H.Rob.
Ageratina paucibracteata (Alain) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pauciflora B.L.Turner
Ageratina paupercula (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pazcuarensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pelotropha (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pendula Panero & Villaseñor
Ageratina pentlandiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina perezii B.L.Turner
Ageratina persetosa H.Rob.
Ageratina petiolaris (Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina photina (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pochutlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina popayanensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina potosina B.L.Turner
Ageratina pringlei (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina proba (N.E.Br.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina prunellifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina prunifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pseudochilca (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pseudogracilis H.Rob.
Ageratina psilodora (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina queretaroana B.L.Turner
Ageratina ramireziorum (J.Espinosa) B.L.Turner
Ageratina ramonensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rangelii H.Rob.
Ageratina regalis H.Rob.
Ageratina resiniflua H.Rob.
Ageratina resiniflua (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina reticulifora (Standl. & L.O.Williams) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhodopappa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhodopoda (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhomboidea (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhypodes (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhytidodes (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina riparia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina riskindii B.L.Turner
Ageratina rivalis (Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina roanensis (Small) E.E.Lamont
Ageratina robinsoniana (Greene) B.L.Turner
Ageratina roraimensis (N.E.Br.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rosei H.Rob.
Ageratina rothrockii (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rubicaulis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rupicola (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina salicifolia R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina saltillensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina salvadorensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sandersii B.L.Turner
Ageratina saxorum (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina schaffneri (Sch.Bip. ex B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina scopulorum (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina scordonioides (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina seleri B.L.Turner
Ageratina serboana B.L.Turner
Ageratina serrulata H.Rob.
Ageratina shastensis (D.W.Taylor & Stebbins) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina simulans (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sodiroi (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina soejimana B.L.Turner
Ageratina solana B.L.Turner
Ageratina sotarensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sousae B.L.Turner
Ageratina spooneri B.L.Turner
Ageratina standleyi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sternbergiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina stictophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina stricta (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subcordata (Benth. ex Oerst.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subcoriacea R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subferruginea (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subglabra R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subinclusa (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sundbergii B.L.Turner
Ageratina tambillensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tarmensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tejalapana B.L.Turner
Ageratina tenuis (R.E.Fr.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina textitlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina theifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina thyrsiflora (Greene) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tinifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tomentella (Schrad.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tonduzii (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tovarae H.Rob.
Ageratina trianae H.Rob.
Ageratina triangulata (Alamán ex DC.) B.L.Turner
Ageratina triniona (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tristis (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina urbani (Ekman ex Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vacciniifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina valerioi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vallincola (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina venulosa (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vernalis (Vatke & Kurtz) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vernicosa (Sch.Bip. ex Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viburnoides (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viejoana B.L.Turner
Ageratina villarrealii B.L.Turner[8]
Ageratina villonacoensis H.Rob.
Ageratina viscosa (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viscosissima (Rolfe) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina warnockii B.L.Turner
Ageratina websteri H.Rob.
Ageratina wrightii (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina wurdackii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina yaharana B.L.Turner
Ageratina yecorana B.L.Turner
Ageratina zapalinama B.L.Turner
Ageratina zaragozana B.L.Turner
Ageratina zinniifolia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina zunilana (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Selected synonyms:

Ageratina conspicua R.M.King & H.Rob. — synonym of Ageratina grandifolia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dendroides (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. — synonym of Raulinoreitzia crenulata (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Toxicity
Further information: Milk sickness

Milk from cows that have eaten snakeroot can cause illness if ingested because the milk becomes toxic. Symptoms of milk sickness include vomiting.
Medicinal Use

Ageratina pichinchensis is a traditional Mexican treatment for superficial fungal infections of the skin. These plant extracts contain encecalin which has activity to inhibit and kill the fungus. Studies have compared its effectiveness in treating toenail fungus with ciclopirox.[9][10][11]

Long used in India to treat snakebite, epilepsy, mental disorders. It was also discovered to be useful in regulating hypertension discovered in 1949, but it causes various side effects. Used to treat schizophrenia due to the alkaloid reserpine it contains.

There are many indigenous cultures that have used snakeroot for its ability to grow hair on the surface of the nose and tongue. One such use of snakeroot for this purpose comes from the practices of external alchemy as practiced in Daoism, because hair grown on the nose and tongue by the use of snakeroot is considered a place for one to absorb energy into the body from one's surroundings. Native Americans, Indigenous Siberians, and Indigenous tribes in Africa have also used snakeroot for these purposes.
References

"Ageratina". The Plant List. Version 1.1. 2013. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
Nesom, Guy L. (2006). "Ageratina". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 21. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Jørgensen, Peter Møller. "Ageratina". Árboles y arbustos de los Andes del Ecuador [Trees and shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador] (in Spanish) – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Peng, Ching-I; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Li, Hui-Lin. "Ageratina". Flora of Taiwan – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Turner, B. L. (2010). "Four new species of Ageratina (Asteraceae): Eupatorieae) from Oaxaca, Mexico" (PDF). Phytologia. 92 (3): 388–99. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011.
Keil, David J. (2012). "Ageratina". In Jepson Flora Project (ed.). Jepson eFlora. The Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley.
Kew Science Plants of the World Online, retrieved 15 July 2020
Turner, B. L. (2010). "Ageratina villarrealii (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae), A new species from Sierra de Zapaliname, Coahuila, Mexico" (PDF). Phytologia. 92 (3): 362–65. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011.
"Snakeroot leaf extract, proven as toenail fungus natural treatment". curestoenailfungus.com. May 17, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-06-02.
Romero-Cerecero, Ofelia; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Jesús Enrique; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime (2009). "Clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of two concentrations of the Ageratina pichinchensis extract in the topical treatment of onychomycosis". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 126 (1): 74–78. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.08.007. PMID 19683043.
Romero-Cerecero, Ofelia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Jesús; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Tortoriello, Jaime (2008). "Double-Blind Clinical Trial for Evaluating the Effectiveness and Tolerability ofAgeratina pichinchensisExtract on Patients with Mild to Moderate Onychomycosis. A Comparative Study with Ciclopirox". Planta Medica. 74 (12): 1430–1435. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1081338. PMID 18671197.

Ageratina (snakeroot) is a genus of more than 330[1][2][3][4] perennials and rounded shrubs in the family Asteraceae.

These plants grow mainly in the warmer regions of the Americas and West Indies. Over 150 species are native to Mexico.[5] Some flourish in the cooler areas of the eastern United States. Two Mexican species have become a pest in parts of Australia and Taiwan.[4] Ageratina used to belong to the genus Eupatorium, but it has been reclassified.

The genus name Ageratina means "like Ageratum"[6] and consists of Ageratum and -ina, the feminine form of the Latin adjectival suffix -inus.
Contents

1 Description
2 Species
3 Toxicity
4 Medicinal Use
5 References
6 External links

Description

The inflorescence consists of multiple fluffy, red or pinkish-white capitula in clusters. These lack the typical ray flowers of the composites.

They have multiple, much-branched woody stems. The petioles are rather long. The leaves are triangular, serrate and opposite with a foul-smelling, musky scent.
Species

As of July 2020, Plants of the World online has 322 accepted species:[7]

Ageratina acevedoana B.L.Turner
Ageratina acevedoi H.Rob.
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina adenophoroides H.Rob.
Ageratina aegirophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina alexanderi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina allenii (Standl.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina altissima (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina amblyolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ampla (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina anchistea (Grashoff & Beaman) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina angustifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina anisochroma (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina apollinairei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina appendiculata V.M.Badillo
Ageratina aracaiensis V.M.Badillo
Ageratina arbutifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina areolaris (DC.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina aristeguietii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina aristei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach
Ageratina arsenei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina asclepiadea (L.f.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina astellera (B.L.Turner) B.L.Turner
Ageratina atrocordata (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina austin-smithii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ayerscottiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina baccharoides (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina badia (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barbensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barclayae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina barriei B.L.Turner
Ageratina beamanii B.L.Turner
Ageratina bellidifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina bishopii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina blepharilepis (Sch.Bip.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina bobjansenii B.L.Turner
Ageratina boekei R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina boyacensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina brandegeana (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina brevipes (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina burgeri R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina caeciliae (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina calaminthifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina calophylla (Greene) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina campii H.Rob.
Ageratina campylocladia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina capazica V.M.Badillo
Ageratina capillipes R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cardiophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina carmonis (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cartagoensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cerifera (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina chachapoyasensis (Cuatrec.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina chazaroana B.L.Turner
Ageratina chimalapana B.L.Turner
Ageratina chiriquensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina choricephala (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina choricephaloides (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina colimana B.L.Turner
Ageratina collodes (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina concordiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina contigua R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina contorta (C.D.Adams) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina corylifolia (Griseb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina costaricensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina crassiceps (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina crassiramea (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cremastra (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina croatii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cronquistii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cruzii B.L.Turner
Ageratina cuatrecasasii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuencana (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuicatlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina cumbensis H.Rob.
Ageratina cutervensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cuzcoensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina cylindrica (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dasyneura (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina davidsei R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina deltoidea (Jacq.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina desquamans (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dictyoneura (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dillonii H.Rob.
Ageratina diversipila R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dolichobasis (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dombeyana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dorrii V.M.Badillo
Ageratina elegans (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina enixa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina espinosarum (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina etlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina etlensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ewanii H.Rob.
Ageratina fastigiata (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina feuereri H.Rob.
Ageratina flaviseta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina fleischmannioides H.Rob.
Ageratina flourensifolia (B.L.Turner) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina funckii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina geminata (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gentryana B.L.Turner
Ageratina gilbertii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glabrata (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glandulifera (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glauca (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glechonophylla (Less.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glischra (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gloeoclada (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina glyptophlebia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gonzalezorum B.L.Turner
Ageratina gracilenta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gracilis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina grandifolia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina grashoffii B.L.Turner
Ageratina guatemalensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gynoxoides (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina gypsophila B.L.Turner
Ageratina haageana (Regel & Körn.) H.Rob.
Ageratina halbertiana (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina harlingii H.Rob.
Ageratina hartii (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hasegawana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina havanensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hederifolia (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina helenae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina henzium B.L.Turner
Ageratina herbacea (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hernandezii B.L.Turner
Ageratina herrerae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hidalgensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina hirtella R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina huahuapana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina huehueteca (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina humochica B.L.Turner
Ageratina hyssopina (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ibaguensis (Sch.Bip. ex Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ilicifolia B.L.Turner
Ageratina illita (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina iltisii B.L.Turner
Ageratina infiernillensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina intercostulata (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina intibucensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina irrasa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina isolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ixiocladon (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina jahnii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina jaliscensis (B.L.Rob.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina jalpana B.L.Turner
Ageratina jalpanserra B.L.Turner
Ageratina jocotepecana B.L.Turner
Ageratina josepaneroi B.L.Turner
Ageratina josephensis Rodr.-Cabeza & S.Díaz
Ageratina jucunda (Greene) Clewell & Wooten
Ageratina juxtlahuacensis Panero & Villaseñor
Ageratina killipii H.Rob.
Ageratina kochiana B.L.Turner
Ageratina kupperi (Suess.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lapsensis B.L.Turner
Ageratina lasia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lasioneura (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina latipes (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina leiocarpa (B.L.Rob.) D.Gage ex B.L.Turner
Ageratina lemmonii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina leptodictyon (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina liebmannii (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ligustrina (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lobulifera (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lopez-mirandae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lorentzii (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina luciae-brauniae (Fernald) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina lucida (Ortega) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina macbridei (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina macdonaldii B.L.Turner
Ageratina macvaughii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina malacolepis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina manantlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina maranonii H.Rob.
Ageratina markporteri B.L.Turner
Ageratina mayajana B.L.Turner
Ageratina mazatecana B.L.Turner
Ageratina megacephala B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina megaphylla B.L.Turner
Ageratina miahuatlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina microcephala B.L.Turner
Ageratina miquihuana (B.L.Turner) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina molinae R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina moorei B.L.Turner
Ageratina mortoniana (Alain) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina muelleri (Sch.Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina mutiscuensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina neohintonorium B.L.Turner
Ageratina neriifolia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina nesomii B.L.Turner
Ageratina nubicola Pruski & Clase
Ageratina oaxacana (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ocanensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina occidentalis (Hook.)R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina oligocephala (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina oppositifolia (A.Gray) B.L.Turner
Ageratina oreithales (Greenm.) B.L.Turner
Ageratina ovilla (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina ozolotepecana B.L.Turner[5]
Ageratina palmeri (A.Gray) B.L.Turner
Ageratina pampalcensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina paramensis (Aristeg.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina parayana (Espinosa) B.L.Turner
Ageratina parviceps H.Rob.
Ageratina paucibracteata (Alain) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pauciflora B.L.Turner
Ageratina paupercula (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pazcuarensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pelotropha (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pendula Panero & Villaseñor
Ageratina pentlandiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina perezii B.L.Turner
Ageratina persetosa H.Rob.
Ageratina petiolaris (Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina photina (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pochutlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina popayanensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina potosina B.L.Turner
Ageratina pringlei (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina proba (N.E.Br.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina prunellifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina prunifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pseudochilca (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina pseudogracilis H.Rob.
Ageratina psilodora (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina queretaroana B.L.Turner
Ageratina ramireziorum (J.Espinosa) B.L.Turner
Ageratina ramonensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rangelii H.Rob.
Ageratina regalis H.Rob.
Ageratina resiniflua H.Rob.
Ageratina resiniflua (Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina reticulifora (Standl. & L.O.Williams) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhodopappa (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhodopoda (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhomboidea (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhypodes (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rhytidodes (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina riparia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina riskindii B.L.Turner
Ageratina rivalis (Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina roanensis (Small) E.E.Lamont
Ageratina robinsoniana (Greene) B.L.Turner
Ageratina roraimensis (N.E.Br.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rosei H.Rob.
Ageratina rothrockii (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rubicaulis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina rupicola (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina salicifolia R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina saltillensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina salvadorensis R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sandersii B.L.Turner
Ageratina saxorum (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina schaffneri (Sch.Bip. ex B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina scopulorum (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina scordonioides (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina seleri B.L.Turner
Ageratina serboana B.L.Turner
Ageratina serrulata H.Rob.
Ageratina shastensis (D.W.Taylor & Stebbins) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina simulans (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sodiroi (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina soejimana B.L.Turner
Ageratina solana B.L.Turner
Ageratina sotarensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sousae B.L.Turner
Ageratina spooneri B.L.Turner
Ageratina standleyi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sternbergiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina stictophylla (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina stricta (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subcordata (Benth. ex Oerst.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subcoriacea R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subferruginea (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subglabra R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina subinclusa (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina sundbergii B.L.Turner
Ageratina tambillensis (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tarmensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tejalapana B.L.Turner
Ageratina tenuis (R.E.Fr.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina textitlana B.L.Turner
Ageratina theifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina thyrsiflora (Greene) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tinifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tomentella (Schrad.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tonduzii (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tovarae H.Rob.
Ageratina trianae H.Rob.
Ageratina triangulata (Alamán ex DC.) B.L.Turner
Ageratina triniona (McVaugh) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina tristis (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina urbani (Ekman ex Urb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vacciniifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina valerioi R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vallincola (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina venulosa (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vernalis (Vatke & Kurtz) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina vernicosa (Sch.Bip. ex Greenm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viburnoides (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viejoana B.L.Turner
Ageratina villarrealii B.L.Turner[8]
Ageratina villonacoensis H.Rob.
Ageratina viscosa (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina viscosissima (Rolfe) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina warnockii B.L.Turner
Ageratina websteri H.Rob.
Ageratina wrightii (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina wurdackii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina yaharana B.L.Turner
Ageratina yecorana B.L.Turner
Ageratina zapalinama B.L.Turner
Ageratina zaragozana B.L.Turner
Ageratina zinniifolia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina zunilana (Standl. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Selected synonyms:

Ageratina conspicua R.M.King & H.Rob. — synonym of Ageratina grandifolia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Ageratina dendroides (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. — synonym of Raulinoreitzia crenulata (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Toxicity
Further information: Milk sickness

Milk from cows that have eaten snakeroot can cause illness if ingested because the milk becomes toxic. Symptoms of milk sickness include vomiting.
Medicinal Use

Ageratina pichinchensis is a traditional Mexican treatment for superficial fungal infections of the skin. These plant extracts contain encecalin which has activity to inhibit and kill the fungus. Studies have compared its effectiveness in treating toenail fungus with ciclopirox.[9][10][11]

Long used in India to treat snakebite, epilepsy, mental disorders. It was also discovered to be useful in regulating hypertension discovered in 1949, but it causes various side effects. Used to treat schizophrenia due to the alkaloid reserpine it contains.

There are many indigenous cultures that have used snakeroot for its ability to grow hair on the surface of the nose and tongue. One such use of snakeroot for this purpose comes from the practices of external alchemy as practiced in Daoism, because hair grown on the nose and tongue by the use of snakeroot is considered a place for one to absorb energy into the body from one's surroundings. Native Americans, Indigenous Siberians, and Indigenous tribes in Africa have also used snakeroot for these purposes.
References

"Ageratina". The Plant List. Version 1.1. 2013. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
Nesom, Guy L. (2006). "Ageratina". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 21. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Jørgensen, Peter Møller. "Ageratina". Árboles y arbustos de los Andes del Ecuador [Trees and shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador] (in Spanish) – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Peng, Ching-I; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Li, Hui-Lin. "Ageratina". Flora of Taiwan – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Turner, B. L. (2010). "Four new species of Ageratina (Asteraceae): Eupatorieae) from Oaxaca, Mexico" (PDF). Phytologia. 92 (3): 388–99. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011.
Keil, David J. (2012). "Ageratina". In Jepson Flora Project (ed.). Jepson eFlora. The Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley.
Kew Science Plants of the World Online, retrieved 15 July 2020
Turner, B. L. (2010). "Ageratina villarrealii (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae), A new species from Sierra de Zapaliname, Coahuila, Mexico" (PDF). Phytologia. 92 (3): 362–65. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011.
"Snakeroot leaf extract, proven as toenail fungus natural treatment". curestoenailfungus.com. May 17, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-06-02.
Romero-Cerecero, Ofelia; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Jesús Enrique; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime (2009). "Clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of two concentrations of the Ageratina pichinchensis extract in the topical treatment of onychomycosis". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 126 (1): 74–78. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.08.007. PMID 19683043.
Romero-Cerecero, Ofelia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Jesús; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Tortoriello, Jaime (2008). "Double-Blind Clinical Trial for Evaluating the Effectiveness and Tolerability ofAgeratina pichinchensisExtract on Patients with Mild to Moderate Onychomycosis. A Comparative Study with Ciclopirox". Planta Medica. 74 (12): 1430–1435. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1081338. PMID 18671197.

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