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Allium ampeloprasum

Allium ampeloprasum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Allioideae
Tribus: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Subgenus: A. subg. Allium
Sectio: A. sect. Allium
Species: Allium ampeloprasum
Name

Allium ampeloprasum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 294. 1753, nom. cons.
Synonyms

Homotypic
Porrum ampeloprasum (L.) Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: no. 2. 1768.
Allium porrum var. ampeloprasum (L.) Mirb. in G.-F.Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2, 1: 384. 1816.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. euampeloprasum Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(3): 39. 1932, nom. inval.
Allium porrum subsp. euampeloprasum Breistr., Bull. Soc. Sci. Isère 61: 610. 1947. nom. inval.

Heterotypic
Allium adscendens Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 385. 1843.
Allium albescens Guss., Enum. Pl. Inarim.: 338. 1855.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. halleri Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 735. 1882.
Allium ampeloprasum var. bulbiferum Syme in J.E.Smith, Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 9: 204. 1869.
Allium ampeloprasum var. bulgaricum Podp., Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 52: 676. 1902.
Allium ampeloprasum var. caudatum Pamp., Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 12: 21. 1936.
Allium ampeloprasum var. gracile Cavara, Bull. Orto Bot. Regia Univ. Napoli 9(1): 46. 1927.
Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 3: 105. 1905.
Allium ampeloprasum f. holmense (Asch. & Graebn.) Holmboe, Veg. Cyp.: 45. 1914.
Allium ampeloprasum var. wiedemannii Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 55. 1875.
Allium ascendens Ten., Index Seminum (NAP, Neapolitano) 1830: 12. 1830.
Allium babingtonii Borrer in J.E.Smith, Engl. Bot.: t. 2906. 1849.
Allium ampeloprasum var. babingtonii (Borrer) Syme in J.E.Smith, Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 9: 204. 1869.
Allium scorodoprasum subsp. babingtonii (Borrer) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 736. 1882.
Allium bertolonii De Not., Repert. Fl. Ligust.: 414. 1844.
Allium ampeloprasum var. bertolonii (De Not.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 735. 1882.
Allium byzantinum K.Koch, Linnaea 22: 240. 1849.
Allium duriaeanum Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 54. 1875), nom. illeg.
Allium durieuanum Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 1: 860. 1849.
Allium gasparrinii Guss., Enum. Pl. Inarim.: 337. 1855.
Allium ampeloprasum var. gasparrinii (Guss.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 735. 1882.
Allium halleri G.Don, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 15. 1827, nom. illeg.
Allium holmense Mill. ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 384. 1843.
Allium kurrat Schweinf. ex K.Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 524. 1926.
Allium porrum var. kurrat (Schweinf. ex K.Krause) Seregin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 36: 102. 2004.
Allium laetum Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 235. 1796. nom. superfl.
Allium laetum var. tonsile Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 181. 1821 publ. 1822.
Allium leucanthum K.Koch, Linnaea 22: 240. 1849.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. leucanthum (K.Koch) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 201. 1890.
Allium ampeloprasum var. leucanthum (K.Koch) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 4: 164. 1852.
Allium leucanthum var. tridentatum Ogan., Fl. Rastitel'nost' Rast. Res. Arm. 12: 12. 1999.
Allium lineare Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: 4. 1768), nom. illeg.
Allium multiflorum DC. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 316. 1815, nom. illeg.
Allium pardoi Loscos, Trat. Pl. Aragon 1: 9. 1877.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. pardoi (Loscos) O.Bolòs & Vigo, Fl. Man. Paísos Catalans 4: 107. 2001.
Allium polyanthum Schult. & Schult.f. in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7: 1016. 1830.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. polyanthum (Schult. & Schult.f.) O.Bolòs, Vigo, Masalles & Ninot, Fl. Man. Paísos Catalans: 1213. 1990.
Allium porrum subsp. polyanthum (Schult. & Schult.f.) Jauzein & J.-M.Tison, Lejeunia, n.s., 178: 12. 2005.
Allium rotundum var. polyanthum (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 3: 102. 1905.
Allium porraceum Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 181. 1821 publ. 1822.
Allium porrum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 295. 1753. nom. rej.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. porrum (L.) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(3): 39. 1932.
Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.) J.Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., III, 8: 218. 1847.
Allium porrum var. breve Alef., Landw. Fl.: 296. 1866.
Allium porrum var. latum Alef., Landw. Fl.: 296. 1866.
Allium porrum var. viviparum Alef., Landw. Fl.: 296. 1866.
Allium pylium De Not., Index Seminum (GE, Genuensis) 1843: 30. 1843.
Allium ampeloprasum var. pylium (De Not.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 3: 107. 1905.
Allium rotundum var. multiflorum Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 735. 1882.
Allium scopulicola Font Quer, Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 24: 144. 1924.
Allium spectabile De Not., Repert. Fl. Ligust.: 414. 1844.
Allium syriacum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 5: 232. 1882.
Allium thessalum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 5: 232. 1882.
Allium ampeloprasum subsp. thessalum (Boiss.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 735. 1882.
Porrum amethystinum Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 140(16). 1831.
Porrum commune Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 111. 1830.
Porrum sativum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: 1. 1768.
Allium sectile Schult.f. in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7(2): 1009. 1830, in syn., sphalm.

Homonyms

Allium ampeloprasum Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 65. 1794 nom. illeg. = Allium rotundum L.
Allium ampeloprasum Boiss., Voy. Bot. Espagne: 615. 1842, sensu auct. = Allium baeticum Boiss.
Allium porrum Georgi, Beschr. Nation. Russ. Reich 3(4): 891. 1800, nom. illeg. = Allium obliquum L.
Porrum sativum (L.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 110. 1830, nom. illeg. = Allium sativum L.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe (all introduced)
Great Britain, Ireland.
Regional: Middle Europe (all introduced)
Czechoslovakia.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece,itzerland.html">Switzerland, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe (all introduced)
Belarus, Baltic States, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Regional: Macaronesia (all introduced)
Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira.
Regional: Northeast Tropical Africa
Ethiopia.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Middle Asia
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Regional: Caucasus
Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Continental: Asia-Tropical (all introduced)
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
Pakistan.
Continental: Australasia (all introduced)
Regional: Australia
New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia.
Continental: Northern America (all introduced)
Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
New York.
Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
California.
Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
Texas.
Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee.
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest.
Continental: Southern America (all introduced)
Regional: Caribbean
Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico.
Regional: Western South America
Galápagos.
Regional: Southern South America
Argentina Northeast.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 294. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Allium ampeloprasum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Allium ampeloprasum. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 20 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Allium ampeloprasum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Feb 7. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2018. Allium ampeloprasum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 20 Jul. 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Allium ampeloprasum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
USDA NRCS PLANTS Profile

Vernacular names
čeština: Pór zahradní
Cymraeg: Cenhinen wyllt
Deutsch: Ackerlauch
Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Πράσο, Αγριόπρασσο, Αγριοσκουράττα, Σκουράττα
English: Broadleaf wild leek, garden leek
español: Ajoporro
eesti: Porrulauk, porru, porro
suomi: Kesäpurjo
Nordfriisk: Gäärslook
français: Poireau d'été
Gàidhlig: leigeas-fiadhain
galego: Allo porro, porro
hrvatski: Poriluk
magyar: Francia v. nyári hagyma
հայերեն: Այգեպրաս, ձիասխտոր
日本語: リーキ
македонски: Праз
Nederlands: Prei
português: alho-porro-bravo, alho-porro, porro, alho-poró
Türkçe: Pırasa
Allium ampeloprasum is a member of the onion genus Allium. The wild plant is commonly known as wild leek or broadleaf wild leek. Its native range is southern Europe to western Asia, but it is cultivated in many other places and has become naturalized in many countries.

Allium ampeloprasum is regarded as native to all the countries bordering on the Black, Adriatic, and Mediterranean Seas from Portugal to Egypt to Romania. In Russia and Ukraine, it is considered invasive except in Crimea, where it is native. It is also native to Ethiopia, Uzbekistan, Iran and Iraq. It is considered naturalized in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Czech Republic, the Baltic States, Belarus, the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, China, Australia (all states except Queensland and Tasmania), Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the United States (southeastern region plus California, New York State, Ohio and Illinois), Galápagos, and Argentina.[2][3][4][5][6] In tidewater Virginia, where it is commonly known as the "Yorktown onion", it is protected by law in York County.[7]

The species may have been introduced to Britain by prehistoric people, where its habitat consists of rocky places near the coast in south-west England and Wales.[8][9]

Allium ampeloprasum has been differentiated into five cultivated vegetables, namely leek, elephant garlic, pearl onion, kurrat, and Persian leek.

Wild populations produce bulbs up to 3 cm across. Scapes are round in cross-section, each up to 180 cm tall, bearing an umbel of as many as 500 flowers. Flowers are urn-shaped, up to 6 mm across; tepals white, pink or red; anthers yellow or purple; pollen yellow.[3][10]

Vegetables

Allium ampeloprasum comprises several vegetables, of which the most notable ones are:

leek
elephant garlic or great-headed garlic
pearl onion
kurrat,[8][11] Egyptian leek or salad leek – this variety has small bulbs, and primarily the leaves are eaten.
Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum ssp. persicum) - a cultivated allium native to the middle east and Iran, grown for culinary purposes and is called tareh in Persian. The linear green leaves have a mild onion flavor and are eaten raw, either alone, or in food combinations.[12]

Spathe unfurling to reveal buds

Spathe fully unfurled

Allium ampeloprasum - MHNT

Section

See also

Allium tricoccum
Ramsons

References

"Allium ampeloprasum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Allium ampeloprasum
McNeal Jr., Dale W.; Jacobsen, T. D. (2002). "Allium ampeloprasum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 26. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
"Allium ampeloprasum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
Xu, Jiemei; Kamelin, Rudolf V. "Allium porrum". Flora of China. Vol. 24 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Altervista, Schede di Botanica
Yorktown Onion Archived 2016-08-11 at the Wayback Machine. York County, Virginia.
"Allium ampeloprasum". Plants for a Future.
CHRISTOPHER D. PRESTON, DAVID A. PEARMAN, ALLAN R. HALL (2004) Archaeophytes in Britain Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 145 (3), 257–294 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00284.x, p. 264
Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
Mousavi, Amir; Kashi, Abedolkarim; Davoodi, Daryoush; Shariatpanahi, Mohammad Sanei (2006). "Characterization of an Allium Cultivated in Iran: The Persian Leek". Belgian Journal of Botany. 139 (1): 115–123. JSTOR 20794599.

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