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Allium ascalonicum

Allium ascalonicum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Allioideae
Tribus: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Subgenus: A. subg. Allium
Sectio: A. sect. Allium
Species: Allium ascalonicum
Name

Allium ascalonicum L., Fl. Palaest. 117. (1756).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Cepa ascalonica (L.) Garsault, Fig. Pl. Méd.: t. 208 (1764), opus utiq. oppr.
Porrum ascalonicum (L.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 110. (1830).
Heterotypic
Allium carneum Willd.,Enum. Pl.: 359. (1809).
Allium fissile Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 183 (1822) [1821 publ. 1822].
Allium hierochuntinum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 5: 244. (1882).

Homonyms

Allium ascalonicum auct., sensu auct. = Allium cepa L.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Africa
Egypt, Libya
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Lebanon-Syria; Palestine; Saudi Arabia; Sinai; Turkey

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C., Fl. Palaest. 117 (1756).

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Allium ascalonicum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Allium ascalonicum. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 20 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Allium ascalonicum in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20.
Tropicos.org 2018. Allium ascalonicum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 20 Jul. 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Allium ascalonicum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
USDA NRCS PLANTS Profile

Vernacular names
suomi: Salottisipuli
македонски: козји лук
русский: лук-шалот
Türkçe: Yabani sarmısak
中文: 火葱

The shallot is a botanical variety (a cultivar) of the onion. Until 2010, the (French red) shallot was classified as a separate species, Allium ascalonicum. The taxon was synonymized with Allium cepa (the common onion) in 2010, as the difference was too small to justify a separate species.[1][2]

As part of the onion genus Allium, its close relatives include garlic, scallions, leeks, chives,[3] and the Chinese onion.[4]

Shallots probably originated in Central or Southwest Asia, travelling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean.

Names
Shallots are called "small onions" in South India, and are used extensively in cooking there.

The name "shallot" comes from Ashkelon, an ancient Canaanite city,[5] where Classical-era Greeks believed shallots originated.[6]

The term shallot is usually applied to the French red shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, or the A. cepa Aggregatum Group). It is also used for the Persian shallot or musir (A. stipitatum) from the Zagros Mountains in Iran and Iraq, and the French gray shallot (Allium oschaninii) which is also known as griselle or "true shallot";[6] it grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. The name shallot is also used for a scallion in New South Wales, Australia[7] and among English-speaking people in Quebec while the term French shallot refers to the plant referred to on this page.[8] In most English-speaking nations, the name is pronounced with the emphasis on the last syllable, sha-lot, while the emphasis is commonly made on the first syllable, shall-ət, in the United States.

The term eschalot, derived from the French word échalote, can also be used to refer to the shallot.[9]
Description and cultivation
Shallot plant (A. cepa var. aggregatum) growing in Castelltallat, Spain
Whole shallot plants consist of roots, bulbs, leaves, stalks, and flowers.
Shallot seeds

Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. The skin colour of shallots can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta.[10]

Shallots are extensively cultivated for culinary uses, propagated by offsets. In some regions ("long-season areas"), the offsets are usually planted in autumn (September or October in the Northern Hemisphere).[11] In some other regions, the suggested planting time for the principal crop is early spring (typically in February or the beginning of March in the Northern Hemisphere).[12]

In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and the soil surrounding the bulbs is often drawn away when the roots have taken hold. They come to maturity in summer, although fresh shallots can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Shallots should not be planted on ground recently manured. Shallots suffer damage from leek moth larvae, which mine into the leaves or bulbs of the plant.[13]
Culinary uses

Shallots are used in cooking. They may be pickled. Finely-sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine, often served with porridge. As a species of Allium, shallots taste somewhat like a common onion, but have a milder flavor.[14] Like onions, when sliced, raw shallots release substances that irritate the human eye, resulting in production of tears.

Fresh shallots can be stored in cool, dry area (0 to 4 °C, 32 to 40 °F, 60 to 70% RH) for six months or longer.[15] Chopped, dried shallots are available.[16]
Shallots, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 301 kJ (72 kcal)
Carbohydrates
16.8 g
Sugars 7.87 g
Dietary fiber 3.2 g
Fat
0.1 g
Protein
2.5 g
Vitamins Quantity
%DV
Thiamine (B1)
5%
0.06 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
1%
0.2 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.29 mg
Vitamin B6
27%
0.345 mg
Folate (B9)
9%
34 μg
Vitamin C
10%
8 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0.04 mg
Vitamin K
1%
0.8 μg
Minerals Quantity
%DV
Calcium
4%
37 mg
Iron
9%
1.2 mg
Magnesium
6%
21 mg
Manganese
14%
0.292 mg
Phosphorus
9%
60 mg
Potassium
7%
334 mg
Zinc
4%
0.4 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Europe

In Europe, the Pikant, Atlas, and Ed's Red types of shallots are the most common.

Asia

Shallots are the traditional choice for many dishes in Sri Lankan cuisine, including pol sambola, lunu miris and many meat, fish and vegetable dishes.

In most Indian cuisines, the distinction between onions and shallots is weak; larger varieties of shallot are sometimes confused with small red onions and used interchangeably. Indeed, most parts of India use the regional name for onion interchangeably with shallot (Maharashtra, for instance, where both are called kanda). The southern regions of India distinguish shallots from onions in recipes more often, especially the much loved tiny varieties (about the width of a finger); these are widely used in curries and different types of sambar, a lentil-based dish. Shallots pickled in red vinegar are common in many Indian restaurants, served along with sauces and papad on the condiments tray. Indians also use it[clarification needed] as a home remedy for sore throats, mixed with jaggery or sugar. In Nepal, shallots are used as one of the ingredients for making momo.

In Kashmir shallots are widely used in preparation of Wazwan Kashmiri cuisine, as they add distinct flavor and prevent curry from becoming black, which is common with onions.

In Iran shallots are used in various ways, the most common being grated shallot mixed into dense yogurt, a combination served in almost every restaurant when one orders grills or kebabs. Shallots are also used to make different types of torshi (ترشی), a sour Iranian side dish consisting of a variety of vegetables under vinegar, eaten with main dishes in small quantities. Shallot is also pickled—called shour (شور) in Persian—along with other vegetables to be served as torshi.

In Southeast Asian cuisines, such as those of Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Brunei, both shallots and garlic are often used as elementary spices. Raw shallots can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. They are also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called bawang goreng (fried shallots) in Indonesian, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. Shallots enhance the flavor of many Southeast Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, shallots are sometimes made into pickles that are added to several traditional foods; the pickles' sourness is thought to increase the appetite. In the southern Philippines, shallot bulbs and leaves are used to make the popular spicy Maranao condiment called palapa, which is used in the dish Piaparan.

The tubular green leaves of the plant can also be eaten and are very similar to the leaves of spring onions and chives.
Gallery

Shallots for sale in India

A person chopping shallots for making satay

Sliced shallots for bawang goreng in Indonesia

Bawang goreng, consisting of crispy deep-fried shallots, is a popular garnish in Indonesia.

Pickled shallots

See also

Scallion

References

"Allium ascalonicum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
Fritsch, R. M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H. D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah (ed.). Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0-85199-510-1.
Block, E. (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
"AllergyNet — Allergy Advisor Find". Allallergy.net. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
"shallot". New Oxford American Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-517077-1.
Green, Aliza (2004), Field Guide to Produce: How to Identify, Select, and Prepare Virtually Every Fruit and Vegetable at the Market, Quirk Books, p. 256, ISBN 978-1-931686-80-8
"Spring onions v shallots". 22 January 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
"Montreal public market site". Montreal public markets. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
"Dictionary: eschalot". Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
Nolte, Kurt. "Shallot.pdf" (PDF). College of Agriculture and Life Sciences | The University of Arizona. Archived (PDF) from the original on Jan 2, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
Hunt, Marjorie B. and Bortz, Brenda (1986), High-Yield Gardening, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, ISBN 0-87857-599-5
Seabrook, Peter (1976), Complete Vegetable Gardener, London: Cassell, ISBN 978-0-304-29738-2
Landry, Jean-François (2007). "Taxonomic review of the leek moth genus Acrolepiopsis (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae) in North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 139 (3): 319–353. doi:10.4039/n06-098. S2CID 86748199.
"Kitchen Dictionary: shallot". Scripps Networks. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
"Onions, Garlic, and Shallots". Virginia Cooperative Extension. May 1, 2009. Archived from the original on September 1, 1999. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
"Shallots, Freeze Dried". McCormick & Co. Inc. 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2013.

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