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Allium chinense (as Caloscordum exsertum) Edwards's Bot. Reg. 33. 5. 1847

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Allioideae
Tribus: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Subgenus: A. subg. Cepa
Sectio: A. sect. Sacculiferum
Species: Allium chinense

Allium chinense G.Don (1827).

Allium bakeri Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 141. (1875).
Allium bodinieri H.Lév. & Vaniot in A.A.H.Léveillé, Liliac. & C.Chine: 38. (1905).
Allium exsertum G.Don, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 17. (1827).
Allium exsertum Baker, J. Bot. 12: 294 (1874), nom. illeg. non G.Don (1827).
Allium martinii H.Lév. & Vaniot, Liliac. & C.Chine (A.A.H.Léveillé) 40. (1905).
Allium splendens Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3: 154 (1867), nom. illeg. non Willd. (1830).
Allium triquetrum Lour., Fl. Cochinch., 202 (1790)., nom. illeg. non L. (1753).
Caloscordum exsertum (G.Don) Herb., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 33: t. 5. (1847).


Allium chinense Maxim. (1859), nom. illeg. = Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Asia-Temperate
Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cuba, Hainan, Japan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Thailand, West Himalaya

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Don, G. 1827. Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 83.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Allium chinense in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Allium chinense. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Allium chinense. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 20 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Allium chinense in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 20. 2018. Allium chinense. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 20 Jul. 2018.
USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database, 6 March 2006 ( Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Vernacular names
日本語: ラッキョウ
中文: 藠头, 薤

Allium chinense (also known as Chinese onion,[3][4] Chinese scallion,[3] glittering chive,[5] Japanese scallion,[3] Kiangsi scallion,[4] and Oriental onion[3]) is an edible species of Allium, native to China,[3] and cultivated in many other countries.[6] Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and garlic.[7]
Flowers of Allium chinense


Allium chinense is native to China (in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang provinces).[3] It is naturalized in other parts of Asia as well as in North America.[3][8][9]

Owing to its very mild and "fresh" taste, A. chinense is often pickled and served as a side dish in Japan and Vietnam to balance the stronger flavor of some other component in a meal. For example, in Japanese cuisine, it is eaten as a garnish on Japanese curry.[10]

In Vietnam, pickled A. chinense, known as củ kiệu, is often served during Tết (Lunar New Year).

In Japanese, it is known as rakkyō (辣韮 or 薤). Glass bottles of white Rakkyō bulb pickles are sold in Asian supermarkets in North America.

Allium chinense is used as a folk medicine in tonics to help the intestines, and as a stomachic.[11]
See also

Allium tuberosum, also known as garlic chives – Species of onion native to southwestern parts of the Chinese province of Shanxi
Pickled onion – Onions pickled in a solution of vinegar or salt


Brummitt, N. (2013). "Allium chinense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T44392537A44396666. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T44392537A44396666.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
"Allium chinense". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
"Allium chinense". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-15.
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database: Allium. University of Melbourne. Updated 3 August 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 347. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 196 藠头 jiao tou Allium chinense G. Don, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 83. 1827.
Block, E. (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
"Allium chinense Rakkyo PFAF Plant Database". Retrieved 2021-11-10.
"USDA Plants Database". Retrieved 2021-11-10.
"Japanese beef curry (Curry Rice)". JustHungry. 2007-02-06. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2021-11-10.
James A. Duke. "Allium chinense (LILIACEAE)". Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Retrieved 2017-12-15.

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