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Allium paniculatum Enfoque 2011-6-11 CampodeCalatrava

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Allioideae
Tribus: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Subgenus: A. subg. Allium
Sectio: A. sect. Codonoprasum
Species: Allium paniculatum

Allium paniculatum L., Syst. nat. ed. 10, 2: 978 (1759).

Cepa paniculata (L.) Moench, Methodus: 243 (1794).
Kalabotis paniculatum (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 19 (1837).
Porrum paniculatum (L.) Moench, Suppl. Meth.: 264 (1802).
Raphione paniculata (L.) Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 89 (1866), nom. inval..
Allium paniculatum var. legitimum Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 4: 176 (1852), nom. inval.
Allium paniculatum var. typicum Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 191 (1875), nom. inval.
Allium pallens subsp. paniculatum (L.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 700 (1882).
Allium acutiflorum Bové ex Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 192 (1875).
Allium albidum C.Presl in J.S. Presl & C.B. Presl, Delic. Prag.: 146 (1822).
Allium praescissum Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 5: 17 (1841).
Allium paniculatum var. caucasicum Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 192 (1875).
Allium paniculatum subsp. caucasicum (Regel) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 207 (1890).


Allium paniculatum All., nom. illeg. = Allium flavum subsp. flavum
Allium paniculatum Ker Gawl., nom. illeg. = Allium saxatile M.Bieb., nom. cons.
Allium paniculatum Sm., sensu auct. = Allium fuscum Waldst. & Kit.
Allium paniculatum Viv., nom. illeg. = Allium nigrum L., nom. cons.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Eastern Europe
Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, South European Russia, Ukraine.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Siberia
West Siberia.
Regional: Middle Asia
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
Iran, Iraq.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1759. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–iv+825–1384 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 978. Reference page.


International Plant Names Index. 2017. Allium paniculatum. Published online. Accessed: Sep. 11 2017.
The Plant List 2013. Allium paniculatum in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2017 Sep. 11. 2017. Allium paniculatum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 11 Sep. 2017.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Allium paniculatum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2017 Sep 11. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Allium paniculatum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
English: pale garlic, Mediterranean onion

Allium paniculatum, common name pale garlic[3] It is widely cultivated and is now naturalized in several places outside its native range.[4]


Allium paniculatum produces several egg-shaped bulbs, each up to 1.5 cm across. No rhizomes. Leaves are tubular and hollow, up to 35 cm long. Scape is round in cross-section, solid, up to 75 cm tall. Inflorescence is (despite the name of the species) an umbel with as many as 100 flowers. Flowers are bell-shaped, about 6 mm across; tepals white to lilac; pollen and anthers yellow.[5][6]

A. paniculatum is placed within section Codonoprasum, subgenus Allium. The species has been regarded as highly variable, with up to 30 taxa included in what has been referred to as the A. paniculatum complex, many of which are now regarded as separate species within the section, including Allium dentiferum, A. fuscum, A. oleraceum, A. pallens, and A. tenuiflorum.[7]

Many taxa from within the section have been incorrectly attributed to this species causing uncertainty regarding morphological diversity and geographic distribution. For instance the species has been described as widely spread through the whole Euro-Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian areas, as well as in North Africa. However the type specimen comes from Ukraine ad South Russia.[7]

Phylogenetically A. paniculatum is in a sister relationship with three other species, namely A. oleraceum and the two western autumnal taxa, A. savii and A. telmatum, forming a subclade within the section.[7]

Allium paniculatum has been reported from every European country bordering on the Black and Mediterranean Seas, including the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Crete. It is also considered native in Portugal, the Czech Republic, Hungary, western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and Palestine. It has become naturalized in California, New York State, Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, and South Australia.[8][9] However see the above section, in which phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the true distribution is in fact confined to Ukraine and South Russia.

The species has been collected in the vicinity of San Francisco Bay in California, as well as isolated locales in Essex County in northeastern New York State. This is of concern because the species has the potential to become a noxious weed. It tends to grow in disturbed sites such as roadsides, cultivate fields, etc.[5][8]

The Plant List
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-03-17.
Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
Flora of North America v 26 p 244, Allium paniculatum
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1759. Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 978.
Salmeri et al 2016.
BONAP (Biota of North America Program) floristic synthesis, Allium paniculatum

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families

Salmeri, Cristina; Brullo, Cristian; Brullo, Salvatore; Galdo, Giampietro Giusso Del; Moysiyenko, Ivan I. (March 2016). "What is Allium paniculatum? Establishing taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic relationships within A. sect. Codonoprasum". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (2): 123–135. doi:10.1111/jse.12170. S2CID 83671442.

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