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Allium triquetrum001

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Allioideae
Tribus: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Subgenus: A. subg. Amerallium
Sectio: A. sect. Briseis
Species: Allium triquetrum
Name

Allium triquetrum L., 1753.
Synonyms

Homotypic

Briseis triquetra (L.) Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 93. 1866, nom. inval.
Allium triquetrum var. typicum Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(2): 223. 1875, nom. inval.
Allium triquetrum f. normale Maire & Weiller, in Fl. Afr. Nord 5: 292. 1958, nom. inval.

Heterotypic

Allium medium G.Don, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 88. 1827.
Allium opizii Wolfner, Lotos 4: 176. 1854.
Allium triquetrum var. bulbiferum Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie (J.A.Battandier & al.) 1(2): 57. 1895.

Homonyms

Allium triquetrum Lour., nom. illeg. = Allium thunbergii var. thunbergii
Allium triquetrum Schrad. ex Schult. & Schult.f., not validly publ. = Allium angulosum L.
Allium triquetrum Sebast. & Mauri, sensu auct. = Allium pendulinum Ten.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Africa
Algeria; Azores; Cape Provinces; Canary Is.; Madeira; Morocco;
Continental: Europe
Baleares; Corse; France; Great Britain; Ireland; Italy; Portugal; Sardegna; Sicilia; Spain; Turkey-in-Europe;
Continental: America
Argentina; California; Falkland Is.; Oregon;
Continental: Australasia
New South Wales; New Zealand North; New Zealand South; South Australia; Tasmania; Tunisia; Victoria; Western Australia

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 300. Reference page. .
USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database, 6 March 2006 (http://plants.usda.gov). Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Allium triquetrum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Allium triquetrum. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 25 2018.

Vernacular names
corsu: Sambula
Deutsch: Glöckchen-Lauch
English: Threecorner leek, triquetrous garlic
suomi: Iberianlaukka
français: Ail à trois angles
italiano: Aglio triquetro
sardu: Àppara
svenska: Sloklök

Allium triquetrum is a bulbous flowering plant in the genus Allium (onions and garlic) native to the Mediterranean basin. It is known in English as three-cornered leek, and in Australia and New Zealand as onion weed.[4][5] Both the English name and the specific epithet triquetrum refer to the three-cornered shape of the flower stalks.[6]

Description

Allium triquetrum produces stems 17–60 cm (6+3⁄4–23+1⁄2 in) tall, which are concavely triangular in cross-section. Each stem produces an umbel inflorescence of 4–19 flowers in January–May in the species' native environment.[7] The tepals are 10–18 mm (13⁄32–23⁄32 in) long and white, but with a "strong green line".[8] Each plant has two or three narrow, linear leaves, each up to 15 cm (6 in) long.[7] The leaves have a distinct onion smell when crushed.
Distribution and habitat

Allium triquetrum is native to south-western Europe, north-western Africa, Madeira and the Canary Islands, where it grows in meadows, woodland clearings, on river banks and roadside verges from sea level to an elevation of 850 metres (2,790 ft).[7] It has also been introduced to the British Isles, New Zealand, Turkey, Australia, California, Oregon, and South America,[7][9][10] and is a declared noxious weed in some of those places.[11] Recorded as an alien at a garden waste site on Howth Head, Ireland.[12]
Culinary uses

All parts of the plant, from the bulb to the flowers, are edible fresh (for example in pestos)[13] or cooked,[14] with "a subtle flavour like leek or spring onion".[15]
References

Allan, D.J. (2018). "Allium triquetrum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 208. e.T172157A136261512. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T172157A136261512.en.
The Plant List
Tropicos
"Angled Onion". Agriculture Victoria. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
"Allium triquetrum". New Zealand Plant Conservation Network page.
Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995), Plants and their names : a concise dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 18, ISBN 978-0-19-866189-4
C. Aedo. S. Castroviejo; et al. (eds.). "Allium L." (PDF). Flora Iberica. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
Clive A. Stace (1997). "Allium L. – Onions". New Flora of the British Isles (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 936–941. ISBN 978-0-521-58935-2.
"Allium triquetrum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
"Onionweed, Allium triquetrum". Wild Picnic, a gallery of useful and edible plants in Wellington and the Wairarapa, New Zealand. 14 August 2009.
"Onion weed is taking over". Cire Services Inc. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
Dhuill, E.N. and Smyth, N.. 2021 Invasive non-native and alien garden escape species on the southern cliffs of Howth Head, Co. Dublin (H21) Irish Naturalists' Journal 37 (2) 102-108
Shaw, Hank (15 March 2013). "Hunter Angler Gardener Cook". Retrieved 27 March 2013.
Clay, Xanthe. "Recipes made from nature's supermarket". The Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 27 March 2013.
Pozzi, Doris. "Hello Little Weed – Recipes". Retrieved 27 March 2013.

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