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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Orchideae
Subtribus: Orchidinae
Genus: Anacamptis
Sectiones: (7)
A. sect. Anacamptis – A. sect. Boryae – A. sect. Coriophorae – A. sect. Laxiflorae – A. sect. Moriones – A. sect. Papilionaceae – A. sect. Saccatae

Species: (11)
A. boryi – A. collina – A. coriophora – A. cyrenaica – A. israelitica – A. laxiflora – A. morio – A. palustris – A. papilionaceaA. pyramidalis – A. sancta

Subspecies: (15)
A. coriophora. subsp. fragrans – A. laxiflora. subsp. dielsiana – A. laxiflora. subsp. dinsmorei – A. morio. subsp. caucasica – A. morio. subsp. champagneuxii – A. morio. subsp. longicornu – A. morio. subsp. picta – A. morio. subsp. syriaca – A. palustris. subsp. elegans – A. palustris. subsp. robusta – A. papilionacea. subsp. alibertis – A. papilionacea. subsp. expansa – A. papilionacea. subsp. messenica – A. papilionacea. subsp. palaestina – A. papilionacea. subsp. schirwanica

Nothospecies: (23)
A. × alata – A. × alatoides – A. × caccabaria – A. × dafnii – A. × duquesnei – A. × eccarii – A. × feinbruniae – A. × genevensis – A. × gennarii – A. × gerakarionis – A. × laniccae – A. × larzacensis – A. × lasithica – A. × lesbiensis – A. × lloydiana – A. × menosii – A. × olida – A. × parvifolia – A. × sciathia – A. × semisaccata – A. × simorrensis – A. × timbali – A. × van-lookenii

Nothosubspecies: (22)
A. × alata. nothosubsp. alata – A. × alata. nothosubsp. apolonana – A. × alata. nothosubsp. sarcidani – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. bornemanniae – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. choirokitiana – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. gennarii – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. kusadasiensis – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. orientecaucasica – A. × gennarii. nothosubsp. subpapilionacea – A. × laniccae. nothosubsp. galloprovinciana – A. × laniccae. nothosubsp. laniccae – A. × olida. nothosubsp. olida – A. × olida. nothosubsp. paparistoi – A. × parvifolia. nothosubsp. bicknellii – A. × semisaccata. nothosubsp. murgiana – A. × semisaccata. nothosubsp. santamariotae – A. × semisaccata. nothosubsp. semisaccata – A. × timbali. nothosubsp. albuferensis – A. × timbali. nothosubsp. barlae – A. × timbali. nothosubsp. reinhardii – A. × timbali. nothosubsp. timbali – A. × timbali. nothosubsp. ugrinskyana

Anacamptis Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 25 (1817)

Type species: Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 33 (1817)


Vermeulenia Á.Löve & D.Löve, Acta Bot. Neerl. 21: 554 (1972)
Anteriorchis E.Klein & Strack, Phytochemistry 28: 2136 (1989)
Herorchis D.Tyteca & E.Klein, J. Eur. Orch. 40: 539 (2008)
Anacampaludorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anacampterorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anacampteulenia P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anteriocamptis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anterioherorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anteriomeulenia P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Anteriopaludorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Heromeulenia P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Heropaludorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
× Paludomeulenia P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 30 (2009)
Paludorchis P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 90: 24 (2009)

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Kretzschmar, H., Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. 2007. Die Orchideengattungen Anacamptis, Orchis, Neotinea. EchinoMedia-Verlag, Bürgel. Table of contents. ISBN 978-3937-10711-0. Reference page.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2001. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 2: Orchidoideae (Part one); page 249 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850710-0

Additional references

Richard, L.C.M. (1817) Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 15: 33.


Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2020. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Anacamptis. Accessed: 2020 Sep 22.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Anacamptis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 22. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Anacamptis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 22. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Anacamptis. Published online. Accessed: 22 Sep 2020.
The Plant List 2013. Anacamptis in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 22. 2020. Anacamptis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 22.

Vernacular names

العربية: انحنائية
azərbaycanca: Bağ səhləbi
čeština: Vstavač
dansk: Horndrager
Deutsch: Hundswurzen
Ελληνικά: Ανάκαμπτος
eesti: Koerakäpp
فارسی: هرمی
suomi: Kalkkikämmekät
hrvatski: Vratiželjka
hornjoserbsce: Wótromudka
перем коми: Анакамптис
коми: Анакамптис
мокшень: Анакамптис
олык марий: Анакамптис
кырык мары: Анакамптис
Nederlands: Hondskruid
polski: Koślaczek
русский: Анакамптис
slovenčina: Vstavač
svenska: Salepsrötter
удмурт: Анакамптис

Anacamptis is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae); it is often abbreviated as Ant in horticulture. This genus was established by Louis Claude Richard in 1817; the type species is the pyramidal orchid (A. pyramidalis) and it nowadays contains about one-third of the species placed in the "wastebin genus" Orchis before this was split up at the end of the 20th century,[1] among them many that are of hybrid origin. The genus' scientific name is derived from the Greek word anakamptein, meaning "to bend backwards".

These terrestrial orchids occur on grasslands, limestone or chalk deposits, or on dunes in Eurasia, from the Mediterranean region to Central Asia.


Except the pyramidal orchid (A. pyramidalis), all species of Anacamptis seem to form a clade around the green-veined orchid (A. morio). They have a diploid chromosome number of 32 or 36. A useful character for distinguishing Anacamptis from Orchis – where the green-veined orchid clade was formerly included – is the basal fusion of the three sepals in Anacamptis.[2]

The few bigeneric hybrids are typically between closely related genera, in particular Serapias. Hybrids between the pyramidal orchid and the early purple orchid (Orchis mascula), found in Cumbria (UK) in 1997, proved short-lived because of the highly divergent genomic lineages of the parents.[2]
Anacamptis papilionacea
Anacamptis × feinbruniae

As of May 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 11 species, two with subspecies:[3]

Anacamptis boryi (Rchb.f.) R.M.Bateman (S Greece, Crete)
Anacamptis collina (Banks & Sol. ex Russell) R.M.Bateman (Mediterranean to S Turkmenistan)
Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R.M.Bateman (Europe, Mediterranean to W Asia)
Anacamptis cyrenaica (E.A.Durand & Barratte) H.Kretzschmar
Anacamptis israelitica (H.Baumann & Dafni) R.M.Bateman (N. Israel, Palestine)
Anacamptis laxiflora (Lam.) R.M.Bateman – Loose-flowered Orchid, Lax-flowered Orchid, Jersey Orchid (WC Europe, Mediterranean to C Asia)
Anacamptis morio (L.) R.M.Bateman – Green-winged Orchid, Green-veined Orchid
Anacamptis morio subsp. caucasica (K.Koch) H.Kretzschmar
Anacamptis morio subsp. champagneuxii (Barnéoud) H.Kretzschmar (W Mediterranean)
Anacamptis morio subsp. longicornu (Poir.) H.Kretzschmar (W & C Mediterranean)
Anacamptis morio subsp. morio
Anacamptis morio subsp. picta (Loisel.) Jacquet & Scappat.
Anacamptis morio subsp. syriaca (E.G.Camus) H.Kretzschmar
Anacamptis palustris (Jacq.) R.M.Bateman(Europe, Mediterranean to C Asia)
Anacamptis palustris subsp. elegans (Heuff.) R.M.Bateman (Europe to C Asia)
Anacamptis palustris subsp. palustris (WC Europe, Mediterranean to Iran)
Anacamptis palustris subsp. robusta (T.Stephenson) R.M.Bateman (W Morocco)
Anacamptis papilionacea (L.) R.M.Bateman – Butterfly Orchid (Mediterranean to Iran)
Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. – Pyramidal Orchid
Anacamptis sancta (L.) R.M.Bateman (E Mediterranean to Caucasus)

Selected nothospecies

Anacamptis × timbali nothosubsp. albuferensis (A. coriophora × A. palustris subsp. robusta) (Mallorca)
Anacamptis × gennarii nothosubsp. bornemanniae (A. morio subsp. longicornu × A. papilionacea) (N Africa, Sardinia)
Anacamptis × duquesnei (A. palustris × A. pyramidalis) (France)
Anacamptis × feinbruniae (A. israelitica × A. papilionacea)
Anacamptis × gennarii (A. morio × A. papilionacea) (W Mediterranean)
Anacamptis × laniccae (A. morio × A. pyramidalis) (Switzerland, France, Italy)
Anacamptis × lesbiensis (A. pyramidalis × A. sancta) (E Aegean Islands)
Anacamptis × simorrensis (A. coriophora × A. pyramidalis) (France, Italy, Greece)
Anacamptis × van-lookenii (A. papilionacea × A. pyramidalis) (France)

Intergeneric hybrids

× Anacamptiplatanthera (Anacamptis × Platanthera) – accepted name
× Anacamptorchis (Anacamptis × Orchis) – unplaced name
× Dactylocamptis (Anacamptis × Dactylorhiza) – accepted name
× Gymnanacamptis (Anacamptis × Gymnadenia) – accepted name
× Ophramptis (Anacamptis × Ophrys) – unplaced name
× Serapicamptis (Anacamptis × Serapias) – accepted name


Bateman & Hollingsworth (2004)
Bateman et al. (2003), Bateman & Hollingsworth (2004)

"Search for Anacamptis", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2014-05-03


Bateman, Richard M. & Hollingsworth, Peter M. (2004): Morphological and molecular investigation of the parentage and maternity of A. × albuferensis (A. robusta × A. fragrans), a new hybrid from Mallorca, Spain. Taxon 53(1): 43-54. HTML abstract
Bateman, Richard M.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Preston, Jillian; Yi-bo, Luo; Prodgeon, Alec M. & Chase, Mark W. (2003): Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142(1): 1–40. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.00157.x PDF fulltext

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