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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Ordo: Magnoliales

Familia: Annonaceae
Subfamilia: Annonoideae
Tribus: Annoneae
Genus: Annona
Sectiones: A. sect. Annona – A. sect. Annonella – A. sect. Annonula – A. sect. Atractanthus – A. sect. Attae – A. sect. Chelonocarpus – A. sect. Gamopetalum – A. sect. Helogenia – A. sect. Ilama – A. sect. Phelloxylon – A. sect. Pilannona – A. sect. Psammogenia – A. sect. Saxigena – A. sect. Ulocarpus

Species: A. acuminata – A. acutiflora – A. amazonica – A. ambotay – A. andicola – A. angustifolia – A. annonoides – A. antioquensis – A. asplundiana – A. atabapensis – A. atemoya – A. aurantiaca – A. bahiensis – A. bicolor – A. billbergii – A. boliviana – A. bullata – A. burchellii – A. cacans – A. calcarata – A. calophylla – A. campestris – A. cancellata – A. caput-medusae – A. cascarilloides – A. centrantha – A. cercocarpa – A. cherimola – A. cherimolioides – A. chiriquensis – A. conica – A. cordifolia – A. coriacea – A. cornifolia – A. crassiflora – A. crassivenia – A. cristalensis – A. crotonifolia – A. cubensis – A. cuspidata – A. danforthii – A. deceptrix – A. deminuta – A. densicoma – A. dioica – A. dodecapetala – A. dolabripetala – A. dolichopetala – A. dolichophylla – A. duckei – A. dunalii – A. echinata – A. ecuadorensis – A. edulis – A. ekmanii – A. emarginata – A. excellens – A. exsucca – A. fendleri – A. ferruginea – A. foetida – A. fosteri – A. frutescens – A. gardneri – A. gigantophylla – A. glabra – A. glauca – A. glaucophylla – A. globiflora – A. glomerulifera – A. gracilis – A. haematantha – A. haitiensis – A. havanensis – A. hayesii – A. helosioides – A. herzogii – A. hispida – A. holosericea – A. hypoglauca – A. hystricoides – A. inconformis – A. insignis – A. ionophylla – A. iquitensis – A. jahnii – A. jamaicensis – A. jucunda – A. leptopetala – A. liebmanniana – A. longiflora – A. longipes – A. macrocalyx – A. macroprophyllata – A. malmeana – A. mammifera – A. manabiensis – A. maritima – A. membranacea – A. moaensis – A. montana – A. monticola – A. mucosa – A. muricata – A. neglecta – A. neoamazonica – A. neochrysocarpa – A. neoecuadorensis – A. neoelliptica – A. neoinsignis – A. neolaurifolia – A. neosalicifolia – A. neosericea – A. neoulei – A. neovelutina – A. nipensis – A. nitida – A. nutans – A. oblongifolia – A. oleifolia – A. oxapampae – A. pachyantha – A. palmeri – A. paludosa – A. papilionella – A. paraensis – A. paraguayensis – A. parviflora – A. pavonii – A. pickelii – A. pittieri – A. poeppigii – A. praetermissa – A. prevostiae – A. primigenia – A. pruinosa – A. punicifolia – A. purpurea – A. quinduensis – A. rensoniana – A. reticulata – A. rigida – A. rosei – A. roxburghiana – A. rufinervis – A. rugulosa – A. saffordiana – A. salicifolia – A. salzmannii – A. sanctae-crucis – A. sariffa – A. scandens – A. schunkei – A. sclerophylla – A. senegalensis – A. sericea – A. spinescens – A. spraguei – A. squamosa – A. stenophylla – A. sylvatica – A. symphyocarpa – A. tenuiflora – A. tomentosa – A. tuberosa – A. ubatubensis – A. urbaniana – A. vepretorum – A. volubilis – A. warmingiana – A. williamsii – A. xylopiifolia

Annona L. (1753)

Type species: Annona muricata L.


Guanabanus Mill., 1754. Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4.
Raimondia Saff., 1943. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 217.
Type species: Raimondia monoica Saff.
Rollinia A.St.-Hil., 1824. Fl. Brasil. Mer. 1: ed. fol. 23; ed. qu. 28.
Type species: Rollinia dolabripetala (Raddi) Fr.
Rolliniopsis Saff., 1916. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 198.
Type species: Rolliniopsis discreta Saff.

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 536.

Additional references

Maas, P.J., Westra, L.Y.T., Rainer, H., Lobão, A.Q. & Erkens, R.H. 2011. An updated index to genera, species, and infraspecific taxa of Neotropical Annonaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 29(3): 257–356. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01092.x Full text PDF Reference page.
Rainer H. 2007. Monographic studies in the genus Annona L. (Annonaceae): inclusion of the genus Rollinia A.St.-Hil. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie B, Botanik und Zoologie. Vienna 108: 191–205. PDF 2018. Annona (Annonaceae). Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Aug. 15.
Safford, W.E. 1914. Classification of the genus Annona with descriptions of new and imperfectly known species. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 18: 1–68 BHL


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Annona in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 17. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Annona. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Aug. 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2016. Annona. Published online. Accessed: July 21 2016. 2020. Annona. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 17.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Annona (Annonaceae) in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
suomi: Annoonat
magyar: Annóna

Annona (from Taíno annon) is a genus of flowering plants in the pawpaw/sugar apple family, Annonaceae. It is the second largest genus in the family after Guatteria,[3] containing approximately 166[4] species of mostly Neotropical and Afrotropical trees and shrubs.[5]

The generic name derives from anón, a Hispaniolan Taíno word for the fruit.[6] Paleoethnobotanical studies have dated Annona exploitation and cultivation in the Yautepec River region of Medicoto to approximately 1000 BC.[7] Plants of the genus have several common names, including sugar-apple, soursop, and guanabana.

Currently, seven Annona species and one hybrid are grown for domestic or commercial use, mostly for the edible and nutritious fruits; several others also produce edible fruits.[8] Many of the species are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases, though their efficacy has yet to be validated scientifically. Several annonacaeous species have been found to contain acetogenins, a class of natural compounds with a wide variety of biological activities.[9][10] The first complete genome for a species in this genus (Annona muricata) was published in 2021.[11]

1 Description
2 Toxicology
3 Selected species
3.1 Hybrids
4 Insects and diseases
5 References
6 External links
7 Images


Annona species are taprooted, evergreen or semideciduous, tropical trees or shrubs.[5] The plants typically grow in areas where air temperature does not drop below 28 °F (−2 °C), especially Cuba, Jamaica, Central America, India the Philippines and Calabria (southern Italy). However, they have also been known to grow in certain parts of the Andes mountains in South America and in Florida.

The woody trunks have thin bark that has broad and shallow depressions or fissures which join together and are scaly, giving rise to slender, stiff, cylindrical, and tapering shoots with raised pores and naked buds.[5] Leaf blades can be leathery or thin and rather soft or pliable, bald or hairy.[5]

The flowering stalks rise from axils, or occasionally from axillary buds on main stems or older stems, or as solitary flowers or small bundles of flowers. Usually, the three or four deciduous sepals are smaller than the outer petals that do not overlap while in bud. Six to eight fleshy petals are arranged in two whorls—the petals of the outer whorl are larger and do not overlap; inner petals are ascending and distinctively smaller, and nectar glands are darker pigmented. The numerous stamens are ball-shaped, club-shaped, or curved and hooded or pointed beyond anther sac. Numerous pistils, attached directly to the base, are partially united to various degrees with a distinct stigma, with one or two ovules per pistil; the style and stigma are club-shaped or narrowly conic.[5]

One fleshy, ovate to spherical fruit is produced per flower. Each fruit consists of many individual small fruits or syncarps, with one syncarp and seed per pistil. Seeds are bean-like with tough coats; the seed kernels are toxic.[5]

Pollination occurs via Dynastid scarab beetles, which appear to be basic generalists within the genus Annona. Those species of Annona which are more morphologically derived, as well as all Rollinia spp., possess reduced floral chambers and attract small beetles such as Nitidulidae or Staphylinidae.[12]
Annonacin is a neurotoxin found in Annona muricata seeds.

The compound annonacin and dozens of other acetogenins contained in the seeds and fruit of some members of Annonaceae such as Annona muricata (soursop) are neurotoxins and seem to be the cause of a Parkinson-like neurodegenerative disease. The only group of people known to be affected by this disease live on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe and the problem presumably occurs with the consumption of plants containing annonacin. The disorder is a so-called tauopathy associated with a pathologic accumulation of tau protein in the brain. Experimental results published in 2007 demonstrated for the first time that the plant neurotoxin annonacin is responsible for this accumulation.[13]
Selected species
Main article: List of Annona species

There are 169 accepted Annona species, as of April 2021, according to Plants of the World Online.[2]

Annona acuminata
Annona acutiflora
Annona ambotay
Annona angustifolia
Annona asplundiana
Annona atabapensis
Annona aurantiaca
Annona bullata
Annona cacans – araticum-cagão
Annona cascarilloides
Annona cherimola – cherimoya
Annona chrysophylla – graines
Annona conica
Annona cordifolia
Annona coriacea
Annona cornifolia
Annona crassiflora – araticum do cerrado, marolo
Annona crassivenia
Annona cristalensis
Annona cubensis
Annona deceptrix
Annona deminuta
Annona dioica
Annona diversifolia
Annona dolichophylla
Annona ecuadorensis
Annona ekmanii
Annona foetida
Annona fosteri
Annona glabra – pond apple, alligator apple, monkey apple
Annona globiflora
Annona haematantha
Annona haitiensis
Annona hypoglauca
Annona hystricoides
Annona jahnii
Annona jamaicensis
Annona longiflora
Annona macrocarpa auct.
Annona macroprophyllata
Annona manabiensis
Annona moaensis
Annona montana Macfad. – mountain soursop
Annona muricata – soursop, graviola
Annona nitida
Annona nutans
Annona oligocarpa
Annona paludosa
Annona papilionella
Annona pittieri
Annona praetermissa
Annona purpurea – soncoya
Annona reticulata – custard apple, bullock's heart
Annona rigida
Annona salzmannii – beach sugar apple
Annona scleroderma – poshe-te, cawesh, wild red custard apple
Annona sclerophylla
Annona senegalensis – African custard apple
Annona sericea
Annona spraguei
Annona squamosa – sugar apple, sweetsop
Annona stenophylla
Annona tenuiflora
Annona tomentosa
Annona trunciflora


Annona × atemoya – atemoya

Insects and diseases

Annona species are generally disease-free. They are susceptible to some fungi and wilt. Ants may also be a problem, since they promote mealybugs on the fruit.[14]


Braephratiloides cubense (annona seed borer)
Bepratelloides cubense (annona seed borer)[15][16]
Morganella longispina (plumose scale)
Philephedra n.sp. (Philephedra scale)
Pseudococcus sp. (mealybugs)
Xyleborus sp. (ambrosia beetles)[15]
Ammiscus polygrophoides
Anastrepha atrox
Anastrepha barandianae
Anastrepha bistrigata
Anastrepha chiclayae
Anastrepha disticta
Anastrepha extensa
Anastrepha fraterculus
Anastrepha oblicua
Anastrepha serpentina
Anastrepha striata
Anastrepha suspensa
Apate monachus
Bactrocera spp.
Bephrata maculicollis
Brevipalpus spp.
Ceratitis capitata
Cerconota anonella
Coccoidea spp.
Coccus viridis (green scale)
Emanadia flavipennis
Gelwchiidae spp.
Heliothrips haemorphoidalis
Leosynodes elegantales
Lyonetia spp.
Oiketicus kirby
Orthezia olivicola
Phyllocnistis spp.
Pinnaspis aspidistrae
Planococcus citri
Saissetia nigra
Talponia spp.
Tetranynchus spp.


Armillaria (oak root fungus)
Ascochyta cherimolaer
Botryodiplodia theobromae
Cercospora annonaceae
Cladosporium carpophilum
Colletotrichium spp.
Colletotrichium annonicola
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Corticium salmonicolor
Diplodia natalensis (dry fruit rot)
Fumagina spp.
Fusarium solani
Glomerella cingulata
Isariopsis anonarum
Koleroga noxis
Nectria episphaeria
Phakopsora cherimolae
Phomopsis spp.
Phomopsis annonacearum
Phythium spp.
Phytophtora palmivora
Phytophtora parasitica
Rhizopus nigricans
Rhizopus stolonifer
Rhizoctonia spp.
Rhizoctonia solani
Salssetia oleare
Sclerotium rolfsii
Uredo cherimola
Verticillium (wilt)
Zignoella annonicola[14][17]


Cephalobidae spp.
Dorylaimidae spp.
Gracilacus spp.
Helicotylenchus spp.
Hemicycliophora spp.
Hoplolaimidae spp.
Meloidogyne incognita spp.
Pratylenchus spp.
Paratylenchus micoletzky. Rhabditis spp.
Tylenchorhynchus spp.
Xiphinema americanum[17]


Cephaleuros virescens
Cephalosporium spp.
Paecilomyces spp.[17]


Fruit rot[15]


Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona L." The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
"Annona L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
"Annona". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
Species of Annona on The Plant List. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
Flora of North America. "1. Annona Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 536. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 241, 1754". 3. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4.
Warrington, Ian J. Warrington (2003). "Annonaceae". Apples: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-592-6. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
University of Southampton (March 2002). "Factsheet No. 5. Annona" (PDF). Fruits for the Future. Department for International Development, International Centre for Underutilised Crops. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
Pilar Rauter, Amélia; A. F. Dos Santos; A. E. G. Santana (2002). "Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New Millennium: Prospects and Industrial Application. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 540 pages. ISBN 1-4020-1047-8. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
Esposti, M Degli; A Ghelli; M Ratta; D Cortes; E Estornell (1994-07-01). "Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)". The Biochemical Journal. The Biochemical Society. 301 (Pt 1): 161–7. doi:10.1042/bj3010161. PMC 1137156. PMID 8037664.
Strijk, Joeri S.; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Roeder, Mareike M.; Chatrou, Lars W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Erkens, Roy H. J.; Sauquet, Hervé; Pirie, Michael D.; Thomas, Daniel C.; Cao, Kunfang (2021). "Chromosome-level reference genome of the soursop (Annona muricata): A new resource for Magnoliid research and tropical pomology". Molecular Ecology Resources. 21 (5): 1608–1619. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.13353. ISSN 1755-0998. PMID 33569882.
Gottsberger, Gerhard (28 April 1988). "Comments on flower evolution and beetle pollination in the genera Annona and Rollinia (Annonaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. Springer Science+Business Media. 167 (3–4): 189–194. doi:10.1007/BF00936405. S2CID 40889017.
Informationsdienst Wissenschaft: Tauopathie durch pflanzliches Nervengift Archived June 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, 4. Mai 2007
Robert Vieth. "Cherimoya". Minor subtropicals. Ventura County Cooperative Extension. Archived from the original on 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
Jorge Pena; Freddie Johnson (October 1993). "Insect Pests of Annona Crops" (PDF). Other Fruits With Insecticides Known to Have Labels for Use. Department of Entomology, University of Florida. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
Jonathan H. Crane; Carlos F. Balerdi; Ian Maguire (April 1994). "Sugar Apple Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". Fact Sheet HS38. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
Bridg, Hannia (2001-05-03). "Micropropagation and Determination of the in vitro Stability of Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona muricata L." Zertifizierter Dokumentenserver der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-20.

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