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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asparagaceae
Subfamilia: Nolinoideae
Tribus: Convallarieae
Genus: Aspidistra
Species: A. acetabuliformis – A. alata – A. albiflora – A. albopurpurea – A. alternativa – A. anomala – A. arnautovii – A. atrata – A. atroviolacea – A. attenuata – A. australis – A. austrosinensis – A. austroyunnanensis – A. averyanovii – A. bamaensis – A. basalis – A. bella – A. bicolor – A. bogneri – A. brachystyla – A. cadamensis – A. caespitosa – A. campanulata – A. carinata – A. carnosa – A. cavicola – A. cerina – A. chishuiensis – A. chongzuoensis – A. chunxiuensis – A. clausa – A. claviformis – A. cleistantha – A. coccigera – A. columellaris – A. connata – A. corniculata – A. crassifila – A. cruciformis – A. cryptantha – A. cyathiflora – A. cylindrica – A. daibuensis – A. daxinensis – A. deflexa – A. dodecandra – A. dolichanthera – A. ebianensis – A. elatior – A. elegans – A. erecta – A. erosa – A. erythrocephala – A. extrorsa – A. fasciaria – A. fenghuangensis – A. fimbriata – A. flaviflora – A. foliosa – A. fungilliformis – A. geastrum – A. glandulosa – A. globosa – A. gracilis – A. graminifolia – A. grandiflora – A. guangxiensis – A. guizhouensis – A. hekouensis – A. heterocarpa – A. hezhouensis – A. huanjiangensis – A. jiewhoei – A. jingxiensis – A. khangii – A. laongamensis – A. laotica – A. lateralis – A. leshanensis – A. letreae – A. leucographa – A. leyeensis – A. liboensis – A. linearifolia – A. lingchuanensis – A. lingyunensis – A. lobata – A. locii – A. longanensis – A. longgangensis – A. longifolia – A. longiloba – A. longipedunculata – A. longipetala – A. longituba – A. longshengensis – A. lubae – A. luochengensis – A. luodianensis – A. lurida – A. lutea – A. maguanensis – A. marasmioides – A. marginella – A. medusa – A. micrantha – A. minor – A. minutiflora – A. mirostigma – A. molendinacea – A. multiflora – A. muricata – A. mushaensis – A. nanchuanensis – A. nankunshanensis – A. neglecta – A. nigra – A. nikolaii – A. nutans – A. obconica – A. oblanceifolia – A. obliquipeltata – A. oblongifolia – A. obtusata – A. omeiensis – A. opaca – A. ovatifolia – A. oviflora – A. papillata – A. patentiloba – A. paucitepala – A. petiolata – A. phanluongii – A. pileata – A. pingfaensis – A. pingtangensis – A. pulchella – A. punctata – A. punctatoides – A. qijiangensis – A. quadripartita – A. quangngaiensis – A. radiata – A. recondita – A. retusa – A. revoluta – A. ronganensis – A. sarcantha – A. saxicola – A. semiaperta – A. sessiliflora – A. sichuanensis – A. sinensis – A. sinuata – A. spinula – A. stellata – A. stenophylla – A. stricta – A. subrotata – A. superba – A. sutepensis – A. synpetala – A. tenuifolia – A. tillichiana – A. tonkinensis – A. triloba – A. triquetra – A. triradiata – A. truongii – A. tubiflora – A. typica – A. umbrosa – A. urceolata – A. ventricosa – A. verruculosa – A. vietnamensis – A. viridiflora – A. wujiangensis – A. xilinensis – A. xuansonensis – A. yizhouensis – A. yunwuensis – A. zhangii – A. zhenganensis – A. zinaidae – A. zongbayi

Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Aspidistra in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar. 14. Reference page.


Aspidistra Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 8: t. 628. (1822)

Type species: Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 8: t. 628. (1822)


Macrogyne Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar.: 69. (1830)
Plectogyne Link, Allg. Gartenzeitung 2: 265. (1834)
Porpax Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 9 (1866), nom. illeg.
Antherolophus Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 6: 190. (1934)
Colania Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 6: 190. (1934)

Homonym: Colania Lee, 1934, Foraminifera

Evrardiella Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 6: 191. (1934)

Native distribution areas:

China South-Central, Hainan, China Southeast.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Taiwan.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, East Himalaya.
Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Ker Gawler, J.B. 1822. Botanical Register 8 : t. 628.

Additional references

Averyanov, L.V. & Tillich, H.J. 2013. Aspidistra truongii – a New Species of Asparagaceae (Convallariaceae s.str.) from Southern Vietnam. Taiwania 58 (2): 108–111 [1]. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2013.58.108
Li, G.Z. & al. 2000. On the trends of morphological differentiation and a new system of classification in Chinese Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae). Guihaia 20 (3): 201–207.
Aspidistra ovatifolia (Asparagaceae), a New Species from Guangxi, China Chun-Rui Lin, Yu-Song Huang, and Yan Liu. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):287-290. 2014 DOI: 10.3417/2011004
Aspidistra cadamensis (Asparagaceae), a new species from Central Vietnam NGỌC-SÂM LÝ, HANS-JUERGEN TILLICH. Phytotaxa Vol 303, No 1 pp 84–88 DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.303.1.8


'eFloras 2008. Aspidistra in Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA..
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Aspidistra in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar. 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Aspidistra. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 14 2021. 2021. Aspidistra. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar. 14.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Schusterpalmen
English: Cast Iron Plant
suomi: Tuonenkielot
日本語: バラン
ქართული: ასპიდისტრა
中文: 一叶兰

Aspidistra /ˌæspɪˈdɪstrə/[2] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae, native to eastern and southeastern Asia, particularly China and Vietnam.[1][3] They grow in shade under trees and shrubs. Their leaves arise more or less directly from ground level, where their flowers also appear. The number of species known has increased considerably from the 1980s onwards, with around 100 accepted as of July 2013. Aspidistra elatior is common worldwide as a foliage house plant that is very tolerant of neglect. It and other species can also be grown in shade outside, where they are generally hardy to −5 °C (23 °F).


Species of Aspidistra are perennial herbaceous plants growing from rhizomes. The leaves are either solitary or are grouped in small "tufts" of two to four. They arise more or less directly from the rhizome, rather than being borne on stems. Each leaf has a long stalk (petiole) and a blade with many veins. The flowering stem (scape) is usually very short so that the flowers appear low down among the leaves. The fleshy flowers are bell-, urn- or cup-shaped.[4] They vary considerably in size and shape, although few are showy. The flowers of A. longipedunculata are yellow and, unusually for the genus, are borne on scapes up to 20 cm (8 in) high. A. grandiflora has spider-like flowers up to 12 cm (5 in) across.[5] The flower has a large stigma with a flattened top. The fruit is a berry, often with a single seed.[4]

The genus Aspidistra was named by the English botanist John Ker Gawler in 1822, as a blend of Greek ασπίς/ασπίδ- aspid- and the genus name Tupistra.[6] The genus was at one time placed in a broadly defined Liliaceae, along with many other lilioid monocots.[4] It has also been placed in the families Convallariaceae[7] and Ruscaceae.[8] The APG III system of 2009 places it in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae.[9]

Aspidistra is a genus that was largely ignored by field botanists until the 1980s onwards, and there has been a very rapid rise in the number of recognised species since then.[5] Some 8 to 10 species were known in the late 1970s; 30 new species were described from China in the 1980s. Subsequently, more new species were found in Vietnam.[10] The online Flora of China uses a narrow definition of species, producing a total of about 55, saying that the genus has "never been well studied".[4] In 2008, Tillich provided a key to the 93 species known at that time.[8]

Plants of the World Online currently includes:[11]

Aspidistra acetabuliformis Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra alata Tillich – Vietnam (Cao Bang)
Aspidistra albiflora C.R.Lin, W.B.Xu & Yan Liu
Aspidistra albopurpurea Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra alternativa D.Fang & L.Y.Yu – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra anomala Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra arnautovii Tillich – Vietnam (Hai Phong)
Aspidistra atrata Aver., Tillich & B.H.Quang
Aspidistra atroviolacea Tillich
(synonym A. renatae Bräuchler) – Vietnam (central)
Aspidistra attenuata Hayata
Aspidistra australis S.Z.He & W.F.Xu
Aspidistra austrosinensis Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra austroyunnanensis G.W.Hu, Lei Cai & Q.F.Wang
Aspidistra averyanovii N.S.Lý & Tillich
Aspidistra babensis K.S.Nguyen, Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra bamaensis C.R.Lin, Y.Y.Liang & Yan Liu
Aspidistra basalis Tillich
Aspidistra bella Aver., Tillich & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra bicolor Tillich – Vietnam (Thai Nguyen)
Aspidistra bogneri Tillich – Vietnam (Ninh Binh)
Aspidistra brachypetala C.R.Lin & B.Pan
Aspidistra brachystyla Aver. & Tillich – Vietnam
Aspidistra cadamensis N.S.Lý & Tillich
Aspidistra caespitosa C.Pei – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra campanulata Tillich – Vietnam (Tuyen Quang)
Aspidistra carinata Y.Wan & X.H.Lu – China (N Guangxi)
Aspidistra carnosa Tillich – Vietnam (Lam Dong)
Aspidistra cavicola D.Fang & K.C.Yen – China (NW Guangxi)
Aspidistra cerina G.Z.Li & S.C.Tang – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra chishuiensis S.Z.He & W.F.Xu
Aspidistra chongzuoensis C.R.Lin & Y.S.Huang
Aspidistra chunxiuensis C.R.Lin & Yan Liu
Aspidistra clausa Vislobokov
Aspidistra claviformis Y.Wan – China (W Guangxi)
Aspidistra cleistantha D.X.Nong & H.Z.Lü
Aspidistra coccigera Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra columellaris Tillich
Aspidistra connata Tillich – Vietnam (Gialai-Kontum)
Aspidistra corniculata Vislobokov
Aspidistra crassifila Yan Liu & C.I Peng
Aspidistra cruciformis Y.Wan & X.H.Lu – China (NW Guangxi)
Aspidistra cryptantha Tillich – Vietnam (Cao Bang)
Aspidistra cyathiflora Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra cylindrica Vislobokov & Nuraliev
Aspidistra daibuensis Hayata – Taiwan
Aspidistra daxinensis M.F.Hou & Yan Liu
Aspidistra deflexa Aver., Tillich & V.T.Pham
Aspidistra dodecandra (Gagnep.) Tillich – Indo-China
Aspidistra dolichanthera X.X.Chen – China (SW Guangxi)
Aspidistra ebianensis K.Y.Lang & Z.Y.Zhu – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra elatior Blume (synonym A.insularis Tillich) Japan (Ōsumi & Kuroshima Islands): houseplant
Aspidistra elegans Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra erecta Yan Liu & C.I Peng
Aspidistra erosa Aver., Tillich, T.A.Le & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra erythrocephala C.R.Lin & Y.Y.Liang
Aspidistra extrorsa C.R.Lin & D.X.Nong
Aspidistra fasciaria G.Z.Li – China (?Guangxi)
Aspidistra fenghuangensis K.Y.Lang – China (W Hunan)
Aspidistra fimbriata F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan)
Aspidistra flaviflora K.Y.Lang & Z.Y.Zhu – China (SC Sichuan)
Aspidistra foliosa Tillich – Vietnam (Thua Thien)
Aspidistra fungilliformis Y.Wan – China (W Guangxi)
Aspidistra geastrum Tillich – Vietnam (Thua Thien)
Aspidistra glandulosa (Gagnep.) Tillich – Laos (La Khon)
Aspidistra globosa Vislobokov & Nuraliev
Aspidistra gracilis Tillich
Aspidistra graminifolia Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra grandiflora Tillich – Vietnam (Hoa Binh)
Aspidistra guangxiensis S.C.Tang & Yan Liu – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra hekouensis H.Li – China (SE Yunnan)
Aspidistra hekouensis H.Li, C.L.Long & Bogner
Aspidistra heterocarpa Aver., Tillich & V.T.Pham
Aspidistra hezhouensis Q.Gao & Yan Liu
Aspidistra huanjiangensis G.Z.Li & Y.G.Wei – China (Gunangxi)
Aspidistra jiangjinensis S.R.Yi & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra jiewhoei Tillich & Škornick.
Aspidistra jingxiensis Yan Liu & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra khangii Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra laongamensis C.R.Lin & X.Y.Huang
Aspidistra laotica Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra lateralis Tillich – Vietnam (Thua Thien)
Aspidistra leshanensis K.Y.Lang & Z.Y.Zhu – China (SC Sichuan)
Aspidistra letreae Aver., Tillich & T.A.Le
Aspidistra leucographa C.R.Lin & C.Y.Zou
Aspidistra leyeensis Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (NW Guangxi)
Aspidistra liboensis S.Z.He & J.Y.Wu
Aspidistra linearifolia Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (W Guangxi)
Aspidistra lingchuanensis C.R.Lin & L.F.Guo
Aspidistra lingyunensis C.R.Lin & L.F.Guo
Aspidistra lobata Tillich – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra locii Arnautov & Bogner – Vietnam
Aspidistra longanensis Y.Wan – China (WC Guangxi)
Aspidistra longgangensis C.R.Lin, Y.S.Huang & Yan Liu
Aspidistra longiconnectiva C.T.Lu, K.C.Chuang & J.C.Wang
Aspidistra longifolia Hook.f. – India
Aspidistra longiloba G.Z.Li – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra longipedunculata D.Fang – China (SW Guangxi)
Aspidistra longipetala S.Z.Huang – China (C Guangxi)
Aspidistra longituba Yan Liu & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra longshengensis C.R.Lin & W.B.Xu
Aspidistra lubae Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra luochengensis B.Pan & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra luodianensis D.D.Tao – China (NW Guangxi, S Guizhou)
Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl. – China (Guangdong, NC Guangxi, SC Guizhou) - type species
Aspidistra lutea Tillich – Vietnam (Son La)
Aspidistra maguanensis S.Z.He & D.H.Lv
Aspidistra marasmioides Tillich – Vietnam (Hai Phong)
Aspidistra marginella D.Fang & L.Zeng – China (SW Guangxi)
Aspidistra medusa Aver., K.S.Nguyen & Tillich
Aspidistra micrantha Vislobokov & Nuraliev
Aspidistra minor Vislobokov, Nuraliev & M.S.Romanov
Aspidistra minutiflora Stapf – China (N Guangdong, Guangxi, ?Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, SW Hunan)
Aspidistra mirostigma Tillich & Škornick.
Aspidistra molendinacea G.Z.Li & S.C.Tang – China (Guangzi)
Aspidistra multiflora Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra muricata F.C.How – China (NC & W Guangxi)
Aspidistra mushaensis Hayata – Taiwan
Aspidistra nanchuanensis Tillich – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra nankunshanensis Yan Liu & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra neglecta Aver., Tillich & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra nigra Aver., Tillich & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra nikolaii Aver. & Tillich – Vietnam (Annamite Mts.)
Aspidistra nutans Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra obconica C.R.Lin & Yan Liu
Aspidistra oblanceifolia F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (S Guizhou, W Hubei, Sichuan)
Aspidistra obliquipeltata D.Fang & L.Y.Yu – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra oblongifolia F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (N Guangxi)
Aspidistra obtusata Vislobokov
Aspidistra omeiensis Z.Y.Zhu & J.L.Zhang – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra opaca Tillich – Vietnam (Khanh Hoa)
Aspidistra ovatifolia Yan Liu & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra oviflora Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra papillata G.Z.Li – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra patentiloba Y.Wan & X.H.Lu – China (C Guangxi)
Aspidistra paucitepala Vislobokov, Nuraliev & D.D.Sokoloff
Aspidistra petiolata Tillich – Vietnam (Thua Thien)
Aspidistra phanluongii Vislobokov – Vietnam[12]
Aspidistra pileata D.Fang & L.Y.Yu – China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra pingfaensis S.Z.He & Q.W.Sun
Aspidistra pingtangensis S.Z.He, W.F.Xu & Q.W.Sun
Aspidistra pulchella B.M.Wang & Yan Liu
Aspidistra punctata Lindl. – China (Guandong, Hong Kong)
Aspidistra punctatoides Yan Liu & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra purpureomaculata H.C.Xi, J.T.Yin & W.G.Wang
Aspidistra qijiangensis S.Z.He & X.Y.Luo
Aspidistra quadripartita G.Z.Li & S.C.Tang - China (Guangxi)
Aspidistra quangngaiensis N.S.Lý, Haev. & Tillich
Aspidistra radiata G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang
Aspidistra recondita Tillich – Vietnam (location not known)
Aspidistra retusa K.Y.Lang & S.Z.Huang – China (NE Guangxi)
Aspidistra revoluta Hao Zhou, S.R.Yi & Q.Gao
Aspidistra ronganensis C.R.Lin, Jing Liu & W.B.Xu
Aspidistra sarcantha Aver., Tillich, T.A.Le & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra saxicola Y.Wan – China (WC Guangxi)
Aspidistra semiaperta Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra sessiliflora Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra sichuanensis K.Y.Lang & Z.Y.Zhu – China (Guangxi, Guizhou, W Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan)
Aspidistra sinensis Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra sinuata Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra spinula S.Z.He – China (Guizhou)
Aspidistra stellata Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra stenophylla C.R.Lin & R.C.Hu
Aspidistra stricta Tillich – Vietnam (Lam Dong)
Aspidistra subrotata Y.Wan & C.C.Huang – China (S & W Guangxi), Vietnam (Thai Nguyen)
Aspidistra superba Tillich – Vietnam (Ninh Binh)
Aspidistra sutepensis K.Larsen – Vietnam (Paypa)
Aspidistra synpetala C.R.Lin & Yan Liu
Aspidistra tenuifolia C.R.Lin & J.C.Yang
Aspidistra tillichiana O.Colin
Aspidistra tonkinensis (Gagnep.) F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (NW Guangxi, S Guizhou, SE Yunnan), Vietnam
Aspidistra triloba F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (SC Hunan, W Jiangxi)
Aspidistra triquetra Aver., Son, Tillich & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra triradiata Vislobokov
Aspidistra truongii Aver. & Tillich – Vietnam[7]
Aspidistra tubiflora Tillich – China (Sichuan)
Aspidistra typica Baill. – China (SW Guangxi, SE Yunnan), Vietnam
Aspidistra umbrosa Tillich – Vietnam (location not known)
Aspidistra urceolata F.T.Wang & K.Y.Lang – China (Guizhou)
Aspidistra ventricosa Tillich & Škornick.
Aspidistra verruculosa Aver., Tillich & D.D.Nguyen - Vietnam (Di Linh plateau)
Aspidistra vietnamensis (Aver. & Tillich) Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra viridiflora Vislobokov & Nuraliev
Aspidistra wujiangensis W.F.Xu & S.Z.He
Aspidistra xichouensis Lei Cai, Z.L.Dao & G.W.Hu
Aspidistra xilinensis Y.Wan & X.H.Lu – China (NW Guangxi)
Aspidistra xuansonensis Vislobokov
Aspidistra yizhouensis B.Pan & C.R.Lin
Aspidistra yunwuensis S.Z.He & W.F.Xu
Aspidistra zhangii Aver., Tillich & K.S.Nguyen
Aspidistra zhenganensis S.Z.He & Y.Wang
Aspidistra zinaidae Aver. & Tillich
Aspidistra zongbayi K.Y.Lang & Z.Y.Zhu – China (Sichuan)

Distribution and ecology
Aspidistra flower

Species of Aspidistra are part of the ground flora, growing in forests and under shrubs, in areas of high rainfall,[5] from eastern India, Indochina and China through to Japan.[13] The largest number of species are found in Guangxi Province, China, with Vietnam occupying second place. Few species have a broad distribution, with many being endemic to China or Vietnam.[10]

It has long been said that slugs and snails pollinate Aspidistra flowers.[5] This has been described as a "myth".[10] Amphipods, small terrestrial crustaceans, are responsible for pollinating A. elatior in Japan. Amphipods have also been shown to pollinate species of Aspidistra introduced to Australia. Springtails and fungus gnats have also been suggested as pollinators.[10] The newly described Vietnamese species A. phanluongii is probably pollinated by flies of the genus Megaselia.[12]

Cultivation and uses

Aspidistra elatior, the "cast-iron plant", is a popular houseplant, surviving shade, cool conditions and neglect. It is one of several species of Aspidistra that can be grown successfully outdoors in shade in temperate climates, where they will generally cope with temperatures down to −5 °C (23 °F), being killed by frosts of −5 to −10 °C (23 to 14 °F) or below. In addition to shade, aspidistras require an open, acidic and humus-rich soil. Species suggested for growing outdoors in the UK include A. diabuensis, A. elatior, A. lurida, A. typica, A. zongbyi and their cultivars.[5]

In Japan, leaves of A. elatior have traditionally been cut into pieces and used in bento and osechi boxes to keep each food separated. However, imitations called "baran" are commonly used now.
In popular culture

As a popular foliage houseplant, A. elatior became popular in late Victorian Britain and was so common that it became a "symbol of dull middle-class respectability".[6] As such, it was central to George Orwell's novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying, as a symbol of the need of the middle class to maintain respectability according to Gordon Comstock, the novel's protagonist. It was further immortalised in the 1938 song "The Biggest Aspidistra in the World", which, as sung by Gracie Fields, became a popular wartime classic.[14]

Aspidistras can withstand deep shade, neglect, dry soil, hot temperatures and polluted indoor air (from burning coal or natural gas) but are sensitive to bright sunlight.[15]

"Aspidistra" was the codename (inspired by the above song) of a very powerful British radio transmitter used for propaganda and deception purposes against Nazi Germany during World War II.[16]

The 1980s British television show The Adventure Game featured a moving aspidistra called the Rangdo of Arg, operated by Kenny Baker.[17][18]

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Flora of China, Vol. 24 Page 240, 蜘蛛抱蛋属 zhi zhu bao dan shu, Aspidistra Ker Gawler, Bot. Reg. 8: t. 628. 1822.
Liang, Songyun & Tamura, Minoru N., Aspidistra, retrieved 16 July 2013, in Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan, eds. (1994), Flora of China (online),
Brown 2013
Oxford English Dictionary, 1933, s.v.
Averyanov, Leonid V.; Tillich, Hans-Juergen (2013), "Aspidistra truongii – a New Species of Asparagaceae (Convallariaceae s.str.) from Southern Vietnam", Taiwania, 58 (2): 108–111, doi:10.6165/tai.2013.58.108
Tillich 2008
Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x
Constantine 2008
Plants of the World Online: Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (retrieved 17 October 2021)
Vislobokov, Nikolay A.; Kuznetsov, Andrey N. & Sokoloff, Dmitry D. (2013), "A new species of Aspidistra (Ruscaceae s.l., Asparagales) from southern Vietnam, field observations on its flowering and possible pollination by flies (Phoridae)", Plant Systematics and Evolution, 299 (2): 347–355, doi:10.1007/s00606-012-0725-2, S2CID 14059501
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