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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Coreopsideae
Genus: Bidens
Sectiones: B. sect. Bidens – B. sect. Campylotheca – B. sect. Clomtonia – B. sect. Degeneria – B. sect. Discopoda – B. sect. Ebussa – B. sect. Fulsotsia – B. sect. Greenmania – B. sect. Heterodonta – B. sect. Lesperthema – B. sect. Meduseae – B. sect. Neurophyllum – B. sect. Platycarpaea – B. sect. Psilocarpaea – B. sect. Solvorngea – B. sect. Steppia

Species: B. abyssinica – B. acaulis – B. acrifolia – B. aequisquama – B. alamosana – B. alba – B. alpina – B. amplectens – B. amplissima – B. andicola – B. andrei – B. anthemoides – B. antheriscoides – B. antiguensis – B. arbuscula – B. aristosa – B. artemisifolia – B. asplenioides – B. asymmetrica – B. aurea – B. awaluana – B. beckii – B. bidentoides – B. bigelovii – B. bipinnata – B. biternata – B. brittonii – B. buchtienii – B. campanulata – B. campylotheca – B. carpodonta – B. cernua – B. cervicata – B. chiapensis – B. chinensis – B. clarendonesis – B. coartata – B. collina – B. conjuncta – B. connata – B. coreopsides – B. cornuta – B. coronata – B. cosmoides – B. cuneata – B. cynapifolia – B. cynapiifolia – B. dahlioides – B. daucifolia – B. degeneri – B. dimidiata – B. discoidea – B. dissecta – B. durangifolia – B. eatoni – B. eatonii – B. edentula – B. ekmanii – B. esmartinezii – B. fecunda – B. ferulifolia – B. filamentosa – B. forbesii – B. frondosa – B. gardneri – B. gentryi – B. geraniifolia – B. gracilis – B. gracillima – B. grandiflora – B. halawana – B. hawaiensis – B. hendersonensis – B. heterodoxa – B. heterophylla – B. heterosperma – B. hillebrandiana – B. hintonii – B. hivaoana – B. hyperborea – B. inermis – B. integrifolia – B. kelloggii – B. kirkii – B. kivuensis – B. laevis – B. lantanoides – B. lemmonii – B. leptocephala – B. leucantha – B. longipetiolata – B. macounii – B. macrocarpa – B. macroptera – B. magnidisca – B. maraiana – B. mauiensis – B. menziesii – B. mexicana – B. micrantha – B. minensis – B. mitis – B. mollifolia – B. molokaiensis – B. muelleri – B. nashii – B. nudata – B. ocellata – B. odorata – B. ostruthioides – B. pallida – B. palmeri – B. parryi – B. patula – B. perversa – B. peucedanifolia – B. pilosa – B. polyglossa – B. polylepis – B. populifolia – B. prestinaria – B. pringlei – B. pseudocosmos – B. quadriseta – B. radiata – B. reptans – B. riedelii – B. riparia – B. rosea – B. rostrata – B. rubicundula – B. rubifolia – B. sambucifolia – B. sandwicensis – B. sarmentosa – B. schaffneri – B. shrevei – B. speciosa – B. squarrosa – B. subalternans – B. subspiralis – B. teikteetinii – B. tenera – B. tenuisecta – B. tereticaulis – B. torta – B. townsendii – B. trichosperma – B. tripartita – B. triplinervia – B. tuberosa – B. urbanii – B. valida – B. vulgata – B. waimeana – B. wiebkei

Bidens L., Sp. Pl. 2: 831. 1753.

Type species: B. tripartita L.


Forbicina Ség., Pl. Veron. 3: 283. 1754.
Megalodonta Greene, Pittonia 4(24): 271. (1901)
Cosmos sect. Klibea Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 8: 423. (1932)


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 831. Reference page.
Funk, V.A. & Wood, K. 2014. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands. PhytoKeys 42: 39–47. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.42.8408 Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: حسيكة
azərbaycanca: Yatıqqanqal, Üçbarmaq
беларуская: Ваўчкі
čeština: dvouzubec
dansk: Brøndsel
Deutsch: Zweizähne, Zweizahn
English: beggarticks
eesti: Ruse
suomi: Rusokit
hornjoserbsce: Zwilc
հայերեն: կատվալեզու
日本語: センダングサ属, センダングサ
ქართული: ორკბილა
қазақша: Итошаған
lietuvių: Lakišius
Nederlands: tandzaad
norsk nynorsk: Brønsle
polski: Uczep
Runa Simi: Muni
русский: Череда
slovenčina: dvojzub
svenska: Skäror
українська: Череда (рід)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ittikanak
Tiếng Việt: Chi Xuyến chi
中文(简体): 鬼针草
中文(繁體): 鬼針草
中文(臺灣): 鬼針草
中文: 鬼针草, 粘身草, 鬼蒺藜, 钢叉针, 婆婆针

Bidens is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae. The common names beggarticks, black jack, burr marigolds, cobbler's pegs, Spanish needles, stickseeds, tickseeds and tickseed sunflowers refer to the fruits of the plants, most of which are bristly and barbed, with two sharp pappi at the end. The generic name refers to the same character; Bidens comes from the Latin bis ("two") and dens ("tooth").[3]

Bidens cypselae sticking to a sleeve

The plants are zoochorous; their seeds will stick to clothing, fur or feathers, and be carried to new habitat. This has enabled them to colonize a wide range, including many oceanic islands. Some of these species occur only in a very restricted range and several are now threatened with extinction, notably in the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the absence of native mammals on these islands, some of the oceanic island taxa have reduced burrs, evolving features that seem to aid in dispersal by the wind instead.

Bidens is distributed throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.[4] Most species occur in the Americas, Africa, and Polynesia, and there are some in Europe and Asia.[5] Bidens is closely related to the American genus Coreopsis, and the genera are sometimes difficult to tell apart; in addition, neither is monophyletic.[6]

On the Hawaiian Islands, Bidens are called kokoʻolau or koʻokoʻolau.[7]

Nodding beggarticks (B. cernua) and hairy beggarticks (B. pilosa) are useful as honey plants. Several Bidens species are used as food by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the noctuid moth Hypercompe hambletoni and the brush-footed butterfly Vanessa cardui, the painted lady. The Bidens mottle virus, a plant pathogen, was first isolated from B. pilosa, and it infects many other Asteraceae and plants of other families.
Bidens gardneri
Bidens alba
Bidens biternata
Bidens mauiensis

The taxonomy of Bidens has been described as "chaotic",[5] and it is not clear how many taxa are included in its bounds. There are probably at least 150 to 250 species,[3][8] and some estimates fall around 230.[4][9]

Species include:[3][8][10][11]

Bidens alba (L.) DC. – romerillo
Bidens amplectens Sherff – Waiʻanae kokoʻolau
Bidens amplissima Greene – Vancouver Island beggarticks
Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. – bearded beggarticks, long-bracted beggarticks, tickseed sunflower, western tickseed
Bidens asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff – Koʻolau kokoʻolau, Ko'olau Range beggarticks
Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff – Arizona beggarticks
Bidens beckii – Beck's water-marigold, Henderson's water-marigold, Oregon water-marigold
Bidens bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt. – Delmarva beggarticks
Bidens bigelovii A.Gray – Bigelow's beggarticks
Bidens bipinnata L. – Spanish needles, hemlock beggarticks, gui zheng cao (Chinese: 鬼針草)
Bidens biternata
Bidens cabopulmensis
Bidens campylotheca Sch.Bip.– viper beggarticks
Bidens cernua L. (syn. B. glaucescens Greene) – nodding beggarticks, nodding bur-marigold
Bidens cervicata Sherff – Kauaʻi beggarticks
Bidens chippii (M.B.Moss) Mesfin
Bidens conjuncta Sherff – bog beggarticks
Bidens connata[12] Muhl. ex Willd. – purplestem beggarticks
Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. – crowned beggarticks
Bidens cosmoides (A.Gray) Sherff – cosmosflower beggarticks, poʻola nui
Bidens cynapiifolia Kunth – West Indian beggarticks, alfilerillo
Bidens discoidea (Torr. & A.Gray) Britt. – discoid beggarticks, small beggarticks, swamp beggarticks, few-bracted beggarticks
Bidens eatonii Fern. – Eaton's beggarticks, bident d'Eaton
Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC. – Apache beggarticks, fern-leaved beggarticks
Bidens forbesii Sherff – coastal bluff beggarticks
Bidens frondosa L. – devil's beggarticks, devil's pitchfork, devil's bootjack, pitchfork weed, common beggarticks, sticktights. Pitchfork weed (B. frondosa) is considered to be a weed in New Zealand.
Bidens gardneri Baker – ridge beggarticks
Bidens hawaiensis A.Gray – Hawaiʻi beggarticks
Bidens henryi Sherff
Bidens heterodoxa (Fern.) Fern. & H.St.John – Connecticut beggarticks, bident différent
Bidens heterosperma Gray – Rocky Mountain beggarticks
Bidens hillebrandiana (Drake) O.Deg. – seacliff beggarticks
Bidens hyperborea Greene – estuary beggarticks, coastal beggarticks, northern estuarine beggarticks, seacliff beggarticks
Bidens laevis (L.) B.S.P. – smooth beggarticks, smooth bur-marigold, larger bur-marigold. Smooth beggarticks (B. laevis) is a common fall flower in the southeastern United States.
Bidens lemmonii Gray – Lemmon's beggarticks
Bidens leptocephala Sherff – few-flowered beggarticks
Bidens leptophylla
Bidens macrocarpa (Gray) Sherff – large-fruited beggarticks
Bidens macroptera (Sch.Bip. ex Chiov.) Mesfin
Bidens mannii T.G.J.Rayner
Bidens mauiensis (Gray) Sherff – Maui beggarticks
Bidens maximowicziana
Bidens menziesii (Gray) Sherff – Mauna Loa beggarticks
Bidens meyeri V.A.Funk & K.R.Wood
Bidens micrantha Gaud. – grassland beggarticks
B. micrantha ssp. kalealaha Nagata & Ganders – Kalealaha beggarticks
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff – small-fruited beggarticks
Bidens molokaiensis (Hillebr.) Sherff – Molokaʻi beggarticks, wedge beggarticks
Bidens × multiceps Fassett
Bidens parviflora
Bidens pachyloma – Meskel Flower
Bidens pilosa S.F.Blake – hairy beggarticks
Bidens polylepis S.F.Blake
Bidens populifolia Sherff – Oʻahu beggarticks
Bidens radiata
Bidens reptans (L.) G.Don – manzanilla trepador
Bidens sandvicensis Less. – shrubland beggarticks
Bidens schimperi Sch.Bip.
Bidens simplicifolia C.H.Wright
Bidens socorrensis
Bidens squarrosa Kunth
Bidens subalternans DC.
Bidens tenuisecta A.Gray – slim-lobed beggarticks
Bidens torta Sherff – corkscrew beggarticks
Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britton – crowned beggarticks
Bidens tripartita L. (syn. B. acuta, B. comosa) – three-lobed beggarticks, three-part beggarticks, leafy-bracted beggarticks, trifid bur-marigold
Bidens triplinervia Kunth
B. triplinervia var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff
Bidens valida Sherff – Mt. Kahili beggarticks
Bidens vulgata Greene – big devil's beggarticks, tall beggarticks, tall bur-marigold, western sticktight
Bidens wiebkei Sherff – Wiebke's beggarticks

Formerly placed here

Cosmos atrosanguineus (Hook.) Voss (as B. atrosanguinea (Hook.) Ortgies ex Regel)
Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. (as B. formosa (Bonato) Sch.Bip.)
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small (as B. nivea L.)
Salmea scandens (L.) DC. (as B. scandens L.)
Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze (as B. megapotamica Spreng.)[10]


"Genus: Bidens L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-11-09 at
Bidens. Flora of North America.
Bidens. New South Wales Flora Online. National Herbarium, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.
Ganders, F. R., et al. (2000). ITS base sequence phylogeny in Bidens (Asteraceae): Evidence for the continental relatives of Hawaiian and Marquesan Bidens. Systematic Botany 25(1) 122-33.
Crawford, D. J. and M. E. Mort. (2005). Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution. American Journal of Botany 92(2), 330-36.
Carr, G. D. Bidens. Hawaiian Native Plant Genera - Asteraceae. 2006.
Bidens. Flora of China.
Bidens. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
"GRIN Species Records of Bidens". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
"Bidens". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
Crowe, D. R. and W. H. Parker. (1981). Hybridization and agamospermy of Bidens in northwestern Ontario. Taxon 30(4): 749-60.

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