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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Gentianales
Familia: Apocynaceae
Subfamilia: Rauvolfioideae
Tribus: Carisseae
Genus: Carissa
Species: C. bispinosa - C. boivinianum - C. carandas - C. edulis - C. macrocarpa - C. opaca - C. ovata - C. pichoniana - C. spinarum - C. tetramera


Carissa L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 189. 1767, nom. cons.


* Antura Forssk., , Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 63. 1775.
* Arduina Mill. ex L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 136, 180; Mant. 7. 52. 1767, nom. illeg. non Adanson (1763), nom. rej.

* Carandas Adanson, Fam. 2: 171, 532. 1763, nom. rej.
* Jasminonerium Wolf, , Gen. Pl. 57. 1776; Gen. Sp. 132. 1781.


* Australian Plant Name Index (APNI). Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian National Botanic Gardens & Australian National Herbarium. 2009 Aug 23 [1].

* Farr, E. R. and Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Aug 24 [2].

Carissa is a genus of about 20-30 species of shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia and Asia.
Conkerberry (C. spinarum) flowers in Shamirpet, Rangareddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The species have maximum heights between 2 and 10 m tall, with spiny branches. The leaves are waxy and oblong, 3–8 cm long, and thick and leathery. The flowers are produced throughout most of the year; they are 1–5 cm diameter, with a five-lobed white or pink corolla, solitary or borne in clusters; some have a fragrance reminiscent of Gardenia. This makes them popular garden plants. The fruit is a plum-shaped berry, red to dark purple-black in different species, 1.5–6 cm in length, and containing up to 16 flat brown seeds. The fruit are edible but tart, and taste like a giant cranberry, though some also taste overtones of strawberry or apple-like flavour, and rich in Vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. The fruit of C. macrocarpa is especially delicious and is used to make jelly. They are eagerly consumed by birds, which also distribute the seed. If eaten before fully ripe, a bitter, latex-like substance is released from the skin. Other than the fruit, the plant is poisonous. This can also come in forms of a lovely bush.[2] Because of its abundance of sharp thorns, the plant is often used as a security hedge. Carissa species are grown from seed or cuttings and tolerate slight frost.[3]

Selected species

* Carissa acuminata A.DC.
* Carissa arduina Lam.
* Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan
* Carissa boiviniana (Baill.) Leeuwenb.
* Carissa carandas L. – Karonda, Karanda, Karauda, Karaunda
* Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC. – Natal Plum, Large Num-Num, Noem-Noem (Afrikaans), amatungulu (Zulu)
* Carissa oblongifolia Hochst.
* Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines
* Carissa ovata R.Br.
* Carissa septentrionalis (Pichon) Markgr.
* Carissa spinarum L. – Conkerberry, Bush Plum, Currant Bush, "native currant", "black currant" (Australia), Wild Karanda (India), anwekety (Anmatyerr), merne arrankweye (Arrernte), nganango (Pintupi)[4]

Formerly placed here

* Acokanthera oblongifolia (Hochst.) Codd (as C. oblongifolia Hochst.)
* Acokanthera schimperi (A.DC.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Schweinf. (as C. schimperi A.DC.)[4]


1. ^ "Carissa L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?2090. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
2. ^ Floridata page for Carissa macrocarpa
3. ^ "Species List: 18. Carissa macrocarpa". Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden. University of Pretoria. pp. 18. http://www.up.ac.za/academic/botany/garden/species/18.html. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
4. ^ a b "Species Records of Carissa Carissa". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?2090. Retrieved 2010-07-05.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License