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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Epidendroideae
Tribus: Neottieae
Genus: Cephalanthera
Overview of species (20)

C. austiniae – C. calcarata – C. caucasica – C. cucullata – C. damasonium – C. epipactoides – C. erecta – C. ericiflora – C. exigua – C. falcata – C. gracilis – C. humilis – C. kotschyana – C. kurdica – C. longibracteata – C. longifolia – C. nanchuanica – C. pusilla – C. rubra – C. subaphylla
Nothospecies: (6)

C. × mayeri – C. × otto-hechtii – C. × renzii – C. × schaberi – C. × schulzei – C. × taubenheimii

Cephalanthera Rich., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4: 51 (1818)

Type species: Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce, Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1906: 225 (1906)


Callithronum Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. 4: 148 (1789)
Lonchophyllum Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. 4: 148 (1789)
Dorycheile Rchb., Deut. Bot. Herb.-Buch: 56 (1841)
Xiphophyllum Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. 4: 148 (1789), nom. nud.
Eburophyton A.Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 48 (1904)
Tangtsinia S.C.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 194 (1965)

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2006. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 4 Epidendroideae (Part one); page 496 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850712-7. Reference page.
Richard, L.C.M. 1817. De Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes 21, 29, 38. Preprinted from Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4: 28–82, pl. 10-12. 1818.

Additional references

Xiang, X.G., Li, D.Z., Jin, W.T., Zhou, H.-L., Li, J.W. & Jin, X.H. 2012. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic orchid genera Thaia and Tangtsinia: Evidence from molecular and morphological characters. Taxon 61(1): 45–54. DOI: 10.1002/tax.611003 JSTOR Reference page.


Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2021. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Cephalanthera. Accessed: 2021 Apr 21.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Cephalanthera in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 21. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Cephalanthera in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 21. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Cephalanthera. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Cephalanthera. Published online. Accessed: 21 Apr 2021. 2021. Cephalanthera. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 21.

Vernacular names

башҡортса: Ойошһеркә
беларуская: Пылкагалоўнік
čeština: Okrotice
Deutsch: Waldvöglein
فارسی: گلسر
suomi: Valkut
français: Céphalanthère
hornjoserbsce: Ptačulinka
magyar: Madársisak
հայերեն: Եղբորոսին
italiano: Cefalantera
日本語: キンラン属
перем коми: Цефалантера
коми: Цефалантера
lietuvių: Garbenis
мокшень: Цефалантера
олык марий: Цефалантера
кырык мары: Цефалантера
Nederlands: Bosvogeltje
polski: Buławnik
русский: Пыльцеголовник
slovenčina: Prilbovka
svenska: Skogsliljor
удмурт: Цефалантера
українська: Булатка
中文: 頭蕊蘭屬

Cephalanthera, abbreviated Ceph in horticultural trade, is a genus of mostly terrestrial orchids. Members of this genus have rhizomes rather than tubers. About 15 species are currently recognized, most of them native to Europe and Asia.[1][2] The only species found in the wild in North America is Cephalanthera austiniae, the phantom orchid or snow orchid.[3][4] Ecologically, this species is partially myco-heterotrophic. Some of the Eurasian species hybridise.

Several of the European species have common names including the word "helleborine", though orchids in other genera are also called helleborines. In addition to those listed here, very large numbers of other specific names will be found in the older literature, but these are almost all synonyms for the best known species such as C. longifolia or C. damasonium, the European white helleborine.

Species accepted as of May 2014 are:[1]

Cephalanthera alpicola Fukuy. - Taiwan
Cephalanthera austiniae (A.Gry) Heller - British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California
Cephalanthera calcarata Chen & Lang - Yunnan
Cephalanthera caucasica Krzl. - Iran, southern European Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Republic of Georgia
Cephalanthera cucullata Boiss. & Heldr. - Crete
Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce - Europe and the Middle East from England and Sweden to Russia and Iran; also Bhutan, India, Myanmar and Yunnan
Cephalanthera epipactoides Fischer & C. A. Meyer - Greece, Turkey
Cephalanthera erecta (Thunb.) Blume - China, Japan, Korea, Kuril Islands, Bhutan, Assam, eastern Himalayas
Cephalanthera ericiflora Szlach. & Mytnik - Laos
Cephalanthera exigua Seidenf. - Laos, Thailand
Cephalanthera falcata (Thunb.) Blume - China, Japan, Korea
Cephalanthera gracilis S.C.Chen & G.H.Zhu - Yunnan
Cephalanthera humilis X.H.Jin - Yunnan
Cephalanthera kotschyana Renz & Taub. - Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Republic of Georgia
Cephalanthera kurdica Bornm. ex Kraenzl. - Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Republic of Georgia, Iran, Iraq, southern European Russia
Cephalanthera longibracteata Blume - China, Japan, Korea, Russian Far East
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch - widespread across Europe, Asia and north Africa from Ireland and Morocco to China
Cephalanthera × mayeri (E.Mayer & Zimmerm.) A.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus - Germany (C. damasonium × C. rubra)
Cephalanthera nanchuanica (S.C.Chen) X.H.Jin & X.G.Xiang - Sichuan
Cephalanthera × otto-hechtii G.Keller in G.Keller & al. - Austria, Switzerland (C. longifolia × C. rubra)
Cephalanthera pusilla (Hook.f.) Seidenf. - Myanmar, China
Cephalanthera × renzii B.Baumann & al.. - Azerbaijan (C. caucasica × C. longifolia)
Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich. - Europe, North Africa and southwest Asia from England, Spain and Morocco to Russia and Iran
Cephalanthera × schaberi Baum. - European Turkey (C. epipactoides × C. longifolia)
Cephalanthera × schulzei E.G.Camus in E.G.Camus, P.Bergon & A.A.Camus - Austria, Germany, France, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia (C. damasonium × C. longifolia)
Cephalanthera × taubenheimii H.Baumann - Turkey (C. damasonium × C. kotschyana)


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of China v 25 p 174, 头蕊兰属 tou rui lan shu, genus Cephalanthera
Flora of North America v 26 p 584, Cephalanthera austiniae
Biota of North America Program

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